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23 terms

ch 14

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Principle of independent assortment
genes become independant of one another during meiosis, resulting in predictable ratio of phenotypes in offspring
homozygotes
carry two identical copies of a gene, gametes carry the same version of the gene(AA)
heterozygotes
two different versions of a gene, resulting in 2 types of gametes(Aa)
Which phenotype is expressed in diploid organisims.
Dominant homozygous and Dominant heterozygous
Mendle's law of segregation
two alleles for a character are packaged into separate gametes
The blending theory of heredity
the realization that both parents contribute to traits of offspring
allelles of each character train separate during
each gamete production
test cross
B?xbb, Homo/hetero dominant cross with homo recessive
ratio of 2 heterozygoes parents for 2 genes
9:3:3:1
The observed distribution of alleles into gametes is an illustration of
Mendles laws of segregation and independant assortment
How do cells acquire homologous chromosome pairs that carry the alleles that are independently assorted?
fusion of gametes
Alleles of different genes segregate from one another in a random manner: describes what process
independant assortment
when do nonhomologous chromosomes segregate independently of each other
metaphase I (law of independant assortment)
Epistasis
one gene determines if another gene will appear of a different trait than the first
Pleiotropy
the ability of one gene to have multiple phenotypic effects
Allow chromosomes of a fetus to be examined by preparation of a karyotype
chorionic villus sampling amniocentesis
nondisjunction
An error in cell division that causes homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to move to the same side of the dividing celll
trisomic
2n+1, occurs when an diploid cell has an extra chromosome (nondisjunction of meiosis I)
Why did scientist think proteins were genetic material
Because the had more 3D shapes than DNA
Griffith discovered
Mixing a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some of the living cells into the pathogenic form.
single-strand binding protein
during DNA replication, molecules that line up along the unpaired DNA strands, holding them apart while the DNA strands serve as templates for the synthesis of complementary strands of DNA.
primase
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain