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Principle of independent assortment

genes become independant of one another during meiosis, resulting in predictable ratio of phenotypes in offspring


carry two identical copies of a gene, gametes carry the same version of the gene(AA)


two different versions of a gene, resulting in 2 types of gametes(Aa)

Which phenotype is expressed in diploid organisims.

Dominant homozygous and Dominant heterozygous

Mendle's law of segregation

two alleles for a character are packaged into separate gametes

The blending theory of heredity

the realization that both parents contribute to traits of offspring

allelles of each character train separate during

each gamete production

test cross

B?xbb, Homo/hetero dominant cross with homo recessive

ratio of 2 heterozygoes parents for 2 genes


The observed distribution of alleles into gametes is an illustration of

Mendles laws of segregation and independant assortment

How do cells acquire homologous chromosome pairs that carry the alleles that are independently assorted?

fusion of gametes

Alleles of different genes segregate from one another in a random manner: describes what process

independant assortment

when do nonhomologous chromosomes segregate independently of each other

metaphase I (law of independant assortment)


one gene determines if another gene will appear of a different trait than the first


the ability of one gene to have multiple phenotypic effects

Allow chromosomes of a fetus to be examined by preparation of a karyotype

chorionic villus sampling amniocentesis


An error in cell division that causes homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to move to the same side of the dividing celll


2n+1, occurs when an diploid cell has an extra chromosome (nondisjunction of meiosis I)

Why did scientist think proteins were genetic material

Because the had more 3D shapes than DNA

Griffith discovered

Mixing a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some of the living cells into the pathogenic form.

single-strand binding protein

during DNA replication, molecules that line up along the unpaired DNA strands, holding them apart while the DNA strands serve as templates for the synthesis of complementary strands of DNA.


An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.

DNA polymerase

An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain

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