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Plate Tectonics Key Words
Terms in this set (34)
A smaller earthquake that follows a more powerful earthquake.
The layer in Earth's upper mantle and directly under the lithosphere in which rock is soft and weak because it is close to melting.
The hypothesis that Earth's continents move on Earth's surface.
The transfer of energy by the motion of heated gas or liquid; in Earth's mantle.
A circular pattern in which material is heated and rises in one area, then cools and sinks in another area.
A boundary along with two tectonic plates push together.
The thin outer layer of rock above the mantle, including all dry land and ocean basins.
A boundary along which two tectonic plates move apart.
A shaking of the ground caused by the sudden movement of large blocks of rocks along a fault.
The point of Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
A fracture in Earth's lithosphere along which blocks of rock move past each other.
In an earthquake, the point underground where rocks first begin to move.
A type of hot spring that shoots water into the air.
An area where a column of hot magma rises from deep within the mantle and heats the lithosphere above it, causing volcanic activity.
A solid sphere of metal, mainly nickel and iron, at Earth's center.
A rapid downhill movement of rock and soil.
Molten rock that reaches a planet's surface through a volcano.
A process in which the shaking of ground causes loose, wet soil to act as a liquid.
The layer of Earth made up of the crust and rigid rock of the upper mantle; broken into tectonic plates.
Molten rock beneath Earth's surface.
The layer of rock between Earth's outer core and crust, in which rock is hot enough to flow in currents.
A long line of sea-floor mountains where new oceanic crust is formed along a divergent boundary.
Landslides that occur when rocks and soil are mixed with water
A layer of molten material, mainly nickel and iron, that surrounds Earth's inner core.
A hypothetical supercontinent that included all of the landmasses on Earth around 250 million years ago.
A theory stating that Earth's lithosphere is broken into plates that move over time.
A deep valley formed as tectonic plates move apart.
The vibrations caused by an earthquake.
An instrument that records ground movements.
The process by which an oceanic plate sinks under another plate into Earth's mantle.
One of the large, moving pieces of Earth's lithosphere. Usually carries both oceanic and continental crust.
A boundary along which two tectonic plates scrape past each other, and crust is neither formed or destroyed.
A water wave caused by an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or landslide.
An opening in the crust through which molten rock, rock fragments, and hot gases erupt.
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