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Biology 111- Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry
Terms in this set (62)
Anything that has mass and occupies space. Exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gas.
A substance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties; composed of one type of atom.
Six elements that make up 95% of the body weight of organisms
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
The smallest part of an element that displays the property of the element.
In the central nucleus; positively charged
In the central nucleus; no charge
Orbiting cloud around nucleus; negatively charged
Equal to the number of protons in each atom of an element.
Equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in atom's nucleus.
Approximately equal to the mass number.
Atoms of an element are arranged horizontally by increasing atomic number in rows.
Atoms of an element arranged in vertical columns. Atoms within the same group share the same binding characteristics.
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons (and therefore different atomic masses).
Iodine and Thyroid Gland
Iodine goes to the thyroid when in the body, iodine is used to check the functionality of the thyroid
Bohr Model Rules
1. the first energy shell can hold up to 2 electrons
2. each additional shell can hold up to 8 electrons
3. each lower shell is filled first before electrons are placed in the next shell
The outermost energy shell; determines many of an atom's chemical properties
States that the outermost shell is most stable when it has eight electrons.
Exception: If an atom has only one shell, the outermost valence shell is complete when it has two electrons.
The number of electrons in an atom's valence shell determines whether the atom gives up, accepts, or shares electrons to acquire eight electrons in the outer shell. Atoms with full valance shells are chemically stable, atoms that do NOT have their valance shells full are chemically reactive.
Two or more elements bonded together.
A molecule containing at least two different elements bonded together. Ex: CO2, H2O, etc.
Tells you the number of each kind of atom in a molecule.
The process of bond formation
An atom that has lost or gained an electron.
Forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom and the oppositely charged ions are attracted to one.
Solid substances that usually separate and exist as individual ions in water.
Formation of Sodium Chloride
Atoms such as sodium and chloride combine in order to form 8 electrons to become stable, also because of the positive sodium charge and the negative chlorine charge these two form a crystalline structure such as salt (slide 28).
Result when two atoms share electrons so each atom has an octet of electrons in the outer shell.
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
Electrons are shared equally between atoms. Ex: hydrogen gas, oxygen gas, methane.
Polar Covalent Bonds
Electrons are shared unequally. Ex: water
Is the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself in a chemical bond.
A weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom.
Properties of Hydrogen Bonding
Can occur between atoms of different molecules or within the same molecule, a single hydrogen bond is easily broken while multiple hydrogen bonds are collectively quite strong, and help to maintain the proper structure and function of complex molecules such as proteins and DNA
Water molecules cling together because of hydrogen bonding.
Property of water; This association gives water many of its unique chemical properties.
Water has a high heat capacity.
Property of Water; The presence of many hydrogen bonds allow water to absorb a large amount of thermal heat without a great change in temperature. The temperature of water rises and falls slowly. Allows organisms to maintain internal temperatures
Water has a high heat of vaporization.
Property of water; Hydrogen bonds must be broken to evaporate water. Bodies of organisms cool when their heat is used to evaporate water.
Water is a good solvent
Water is a good solvent because of its polarity. Polar substances dissolve readily in water.
Molecules dissolve in water; Water loving, lipid fearing.
Molecules do not dissolve in water; Water fearing, lipid loving
Water molecules are cohesive and adhesive.
Property of water; Cohesion and adhesion account for water transport in plants as well as transport in blood vessels.
The ability of water molecules to cling to each other due to hydrogen bonding. Enables, water freely flowing and surface tension.
Adhesion is due to water's polarity; the ability of water molecules to cling to other polar surfaces. Enables capillary action.
Ice is less dense than liquid water.
Property of water; At temperatures below 4°C, hydrogen bonds between water molecules become more rigid but also more open, water expands as it reaches 0°C and freezes. Ice floats on liquid water.
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
Substances that dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions. Any pH less than 7 is considered an acid.
Substances that either take up hydrogen ions (H+) or release hydroxide ions (OH−). Any pH greater than 7 is considered a base.
Used to indicate the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a solution.
Values range from 0-14
0 to <7 = Acidic
7 = Neutral
>7 to 14 = Basic (or alkaline)
Each unit change in pH represents a 10-fold change in H+ concentration.
Ex: pH of 4 is 10X as acidic as pH of 5
pH of 10 is 100X more basic than pH of 8
A chemical or a combination of chemicals that keeps pH within normal limits.
Which of the subatomic particles contributes almost no weight to an atom?...
Neutrons in the nucleus
The atomic number tells you the?...
Number of protons in the atom and the number of its electrons if the atom is neutral.
An atom that has two electrons in the outer shell such as magnesium, would most likely?...
Lose two electrons and become a positively charged ion.
Isotopes differ in their?...
Number of neutrons
When an atom gains electrons, it?...
Forms a negatively charged ion.
A covalent bond is indicated by?...
Overlapping electron shells or a straight line between atomic symbols.
The shape of a molecule?...
Is dependent in part on the angle of bonds between its atoms and influences in its biological function.
In the molecule CH4 (methane)...
All atoms are sharing electrons.
Which of these properties of water cannot be attributed to hydrogen bonding between water molecules?...
Water molecules are cohesive.
H2CO3/NaHCO3 is a buffer system in the body. What effect will the addition of an acid have on the pH of a solution that is buffered?...
The pH will not change.
Release hydrogen ions in solution.
If a chemical accepted H+ from the surrounding solution, the chemical could be?...
The periodic table tells us?...
The atomic number, symbol, and mass, how many shells an atom has, how many electrons are in the outer shell, and whether the atom will react or not.
Which of these best describes the changes that occur when a solution goes from pH5 to pH7?...
The solution is now 100 times more basic.
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