A polymer composed of nucleotide monomers. Antiparalled strands form a double helix turning in a clockwise direction.
The bonds between the phosphate and carbon, or the phosphate and hydroxyl; in DNA
Darwin and Mendel
Worked with pea plants to find out that traits are inherited; determined that some traits are recessive and others dominant through cross-pollination
Erwin, 1944; he moved from physics to biology; he thought that genes were made up of proteins
Johann Friedrich, 1869; discovers acidic 'nuclein' in the nucleus, which is later determined to be DNA.
Views in the 1900s
Scientists thought that proteins were everything, and consequently thought that genes were proteins.
Frederick, 1928; discovered a transforming factor by chance while looking at pneumonia vaccines; he injected mice with good and bad strands of the virus, discovering that something from the bad strand was able to leak out even when it had been denatured, and still affect the mouse.
aka. bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria); T-2 and T-4 are types that effect E. Coli
Hershey and Chase
Alfred and Martha, 1952; test to see if viruses carry genetic info on DNA or protein; tagged both protein and DNA with different radioactive atoms to see which one carried on inside the cell; DNA was carried on
Wilkins and Franklin
Used x-ray crystallography (beaming an x-ray through DNA) to determine that DNA took on a helical shape
Erwin; analyzed the ATGC ratios in DNA of different species and determined that they were not all 25% ratios, but that A matched T, and C matched G
Watson and Crick
James and Frances, 1953; theoretical biologists who combined lots of ideas to pull ot all together into today's model of DNA
Each DNA molecule is composed of one parent strand and one newly synthesized stand
The bacterial enzyme that releives the tension produced by the unwinding of DNA during replication
The region where the enzymes replicating a DNA molecule are bound to untwisted, single-stranded DNA
The region where two replication forks are in close proximity to eachother, producing a bubble in the replicating DNA
DNA Polymerase III
The enzyme responsible for synthesizing complementary strands of DNA during replication
Nucleotides; molecules composed of a deoxyribose sugar bonded to three phosphate groups and a nitrogenous base
The new strand of DNA that is synthesized in short fragments, which are later joined together
Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication
DNA Polymerase I
The enzyme that removers RNA primers and replaces the with the appropriate nucleotides during replication
Variable Number Tandem Repeats; repeated base pair sequences; 3 types: telomeres, centromeres, pseudogenes