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Narrative technique - Point of View
The writer of the story, essay, novella, novel, etc.
The person telling the story (usually NOT the author)
the point of view, ie. the vantage point or stance from which a story is told, the eye and mind through which the action is perceived and filtered
the narrator is limited to the knowledge and perception of one single character
first-person as protagonist
A character in the story tells the story, using the pronoun I. The narration is limited to this character's thoughts, feelings and perception
the narrator is not a character in the story, nor does he know the thoughts and feelings of the story's characters
Point of view in which an omniscient narrator (a persona with godlike knowledge) has the knowledge of thoughts and actions of all characters (past, present, future)
a narrator whose account of events appears to be faulty, misleadingly biased, or otherwise distorted
shift of point of view
a change in perspective from one character to another, or one perspective to another
first-person as observer
the narrator is a minor character in the story who plays the role of an eyewitness. His sources of information are what he hears and sees and what the main character tells him.
credibility / intimacy
terms usually associated with a first-person point of view
a narrative technique that records a character's internal flow of (unspoken) thoughts, memories, and ideas
a person who takes part in the action of a literary work
usually associated with an omniscient point of view. A narrator with an unlimited scope has a "godlike" position and access to all characters' thoughts past, present, future
a writer who presents the actions, thoughts, and dialogue of characters from an objective point of view, without personal or subjective commentary
narrator may comment on the discourse/action in a way that transcends the scope of the characters in the story
narrator does not comment on the discourse/action of different characters, as he is limited to the critical insight of one or more specific characters
a mask, or "second self" through which the author tells a story
a narrator not fully understanding all implications of his/her tale
narrator is restricted to only those objects and details that can be seen and heard by an invisible witness
the narrator is impersonal, i.e. he/she reports from outside as a "hidden observer"