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was the King of the Franks and was later the Holy roman Emperor by the pope in 800bc. He freed the papel states from the barbarians. He attempted to created a centralized bureaucracy. Although he was illiterate, it triggered an intellectual revival.

Papal States

A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.

Charles Martel

the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.

Song of Roland

An epic that talked of a chivalric knight named Roland, it revealed the popular image of Charlemagne in later centuries, This is a French epic written about Charlemagne's knights, most popular song in Medieval Europe, addresses loyalty and courage.


a great warrior, goes to Denmark on a successful mission to kill Grendel; he returns home to Geatland, where he becomes king and slays a dragon before dying; poem; alliterative verse, elegy, small scale heroic epic; author unknown; setting around 500 AD

oath of fealty

In medieval Europe, fealty was sworn between two people, the obliged person (vassal) and a person of rank (lord). This was done as part of a formal commendation ceremony to create a feudal relationship.


An land granted to a vassal by a lord under the feudal system in medieval Europe


men or women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection. 60% of people were inserfed.


was an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy. Nobles were exempt from these.

Agricultural Revolution

The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled


In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.

guild system

were labor groups that maintained a monopoly on their respective trades, restricted membership, established prices, set standards of quality and fair practice, and provided pensions.


was lending money at illegal high rates of interest. Jews were the only ones to practice this and this made the jews look greedy and added to christian anti-semitism.

College of Cardinals

Body of Church officials put together by Leo, who elected the Pope, created as an attempt to assert Church independence from Kings. this was so all of Leo's reforms were not undone.

Seljuk Turks

Dominate power in the east that controlled Turkey. They converted to Islam, and did not worship icons. The Seljuk disruption of European travel to the Holy Lands resulted in the Crusades.

Clermont Council

The Pope called the a great meeting of French nobles and church leaders in 1095. This was a calling on christians to drive the infidels from the Holy Land.

Children's Crusade

took place in 1212 when thousands of children set out for the holy land armed only with the belief that God would return Jerusalem to them. They were either killed or sold into slavery.

Domesday Book

was a record of all the property and holdings in England commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1066 so he could determine the extent of his lands and wealth

Magna Carta

Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility




a heretical sect that rejected orthodox doctrine on the relationship of God and man, the scaraments, the clerical hierarchy


people who led heretical movements against the church. They appealed to the biblical ideal of simplicity and separation from the world.


someone who lends money at excessive rates of interest


members of certain Roman Catholic religious orders; first prominent in the Europe of the late Middle Ages; unlike monks, friars preached in towns

Little ice age

A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable. (p. 462)


religious fanatics who thought the black death was punishment from God. They traveled in groups and beat themselves with whips, claiming it was penance.

Chivalric Code

A code that knights were sworn to follow. It required them to display qualities such as bravery, courtesy, honor, and gallantry.

Battle of Crecy

In 1346, the English completely flattened a much larger French force. This was the first major battle, and the "blind" chivalry of the French was no match for the longbows and tactics of the English, who lost only about 100 men and killed 3000.


the frustrations of the French peasantry exploded in a massive uprsing called this named after a happy agricultural laborer Jacques Bonhomme (good fellow)

Avignon Papacy

the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome

Great Schism

a division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome.

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