Chapter 34 Bacterial Infections
Terms in this set (107)
An organism that can cause disease.
The ability of an organism to cause infection.
A common word used to describe a pathogen.
Bacteria that contain a thick cell wall and retain a purple color after staining. Staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci.
Bacteria that have thinner cell walls will lose the violet stain. Bacteroides, E. coli, klebsiella, pseudomonas, and salmonella.
Bacteria that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment.
Bacteria that grow best without oxygen.
A general term for any medication that is effective against pathogens.
A term used more frequently, but technically only refers to natural substances produced by microorganisms that can kill other microorganisms.
Medications that treat by killing bacteria.
Drugs that do not kill bacteria, but instead slow their growth.
Errors in the genetic code of bacteria.
Drug-resistant bacteria free to grow, in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and the client develops an infection that is resistant to conventional drug therapy.
The small pieces of circular DNA that are transferred through conjugation, which is passing on the resistance gene to other bacteria.
Infections acquired in a hospital or other healthcare setting.
Drugs that are effective against many different species of pathogens.
Drugs effective against only one or a restricted group of microorganisms.
culture and sensitivity testing
The process of growing out the pathogen and identifying the most effective antibiotic.
A common side effect of anti-infective therapy which occur when microorganisms normally present in the body are destroyed.
Normal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.
Many bacterial cell walls contain this substance, that serves as a receptor for penicillin.
The portion of the chemical structure of penicillin that is responsible for its antibacterial activity.
Also called penicillnase, an enzyme secreted by bacteria which splits the beta-lactam ring. This allows these bacteria to become resistant to the effects of most penicillins.
Essential B-complex vitamin that is essential for cellular growth.
A reaction that can occur with rapid IV administration and includes hypotension with flushing and a red rash on the face and upper body.
In tuberculosis slow-growing mycobacteria usually become dormant, existing inside cavities called this.
Pathogens are organisms that cause disease owing to their ability to divide rapidly or secrete toxins.
Bacteria are described by their shape (bacilli, cocci, or spirilla), their ability to utilize oxygen (aerobic or anaerobic), and by their staining characteristics (gram positive or gram negative).
Anti-infective drugs are classified by their chemical structures (e.g., aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone) or by their mechanism of action (e.g., cell-wall inhibitor, folic acid inhibitor).
Anti-infective drugs act by affecting the target organism's unique structure, metabolism, or life cycle and may be bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic.
Acquired resistance occurs when a pathogen acquires a gene for bacterial resistance, either through mutation or from another microbe. Resistance results in loss of antibiotic effectiveness and is worsened by the overprescribing of these agents.
Careful selection of the correct antibiotic, through the use of culture and sensitivity testing, is essential for effective pharmacotherapy and to limit adverse effects. Superinfections may occur during antibiotic therapy if too many host flora are killed.
Host factors such as immune system status, local conditions at the infection site, allergic reactions, age, and genetics influence the choice of antibiotic.
Penicillins, which kill bacteria by disrupting the cell wall, are most effective against gram-positive bacteria. Allergies occur most frequently with the penicillins.
The cephalosporins are similar in structure and function to the penicillins and are one of the most widely prescribed anti-infective classes. Cross-sensitivity may exist with the penicillins in some clients.
Tetracyclines have some of the broadest spectrums of any antibiotic class. They are drugs of choice for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, cholera, Lyme disease, peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial infections.
The macrolides are safe alternatives to penicillin. They are effective against most gram-postive bacteria and many gram-negative species.
The aminoglycosides are narrow-spectrum drugs, most commonly prescribed for infections by aerobic, gram-negative bacteria. They have the potential to cause serious adverse effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neuromuscular blockade.
The use of fluoroquinolones has expanded far beyond their initial role in treating urinary tract infections. All fluoroquinolones have activity against gram-negative pathogens, and newer drugs in the class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
Resistance has limited the usefulness of once widely prescribed sulfonamides to urinary tract infections and a few other specific infections.
A number of miscellaneous antibacterials have specific indications, distinct antibacterial mechanisms, and related nursing care.
Multiple drug therapies are needed in the treatment of tuberculosis, since the complex microbes are slow growing and commonly develop drug resistance.
Refers to natural substances.
Drugs responsible for killing infectious microorgansims.
Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
Antibiotics that are used against a wide variety of microorganisms.
Occurs secondarily to anti-infective therapy.
An enzyme secreted by bacteria that limits the therapeutic usefulness of penicillins.
A widely prescribed class of antibiotics, similar in structure and function to the penicillins.
Antibiotics that are safer alternatives to penicillin because they can generally be administered over a shorter time.
Narrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.
Fluoroquinolone or miscellaneous
Gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin)
Neomycin sulfate (Mycifradin)
Doxycycline hyclate (Doryx)
Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
Fluoroquinolone or miscellaneous
Pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, speticemia, endocarditis
Pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, bacteremia, endocarditis
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Traveler's diarrhea, UTI, bacteremia, endometriosis
Veneral disease, endometriosis
It is effective against a large number of organisms.
The value of using an antibiotic that is classified as a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
They kill the infectious agent.
The action of bacteriocidal drugs.
The advantage of using amoxicillin (Amoxil) over penicillin G.
The class of antibiotics is usually reserved for urinary tract infections and have serious adverse effects on hearing and kidney function.
The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.
The antibiotic that would most likely be used for the dental client allergic to penicillin.
The type of drug that is effective against a large number of different species of bacteria.
Photosensitivity and teeth discoloration are potential adverse effects of this drug.
The drug of choice for the treatment of M. tuberculosis.
An antibiotic responsible for causing red-man syndrome as a side effect.
Mycobacteria have a cell wall that is resistant to penetration by anti-infective drugs.
Drug therapy of tuberculosis differs from that of most other infections by this way.
To determine which antibiotic is most effective against the infecting microorganism.
The purpose of culture and sensitivity testing.
The type of antibiotics that are more likely to cause superinfections.
The antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.
Two factors that contribute to acquired resistance.
Errors during replication of bacterial DNA and Overuse of antibiotics
Prototype drug: penicillin G (Pentids)
Mechanism of action: to kill bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
Primary use: as drug of choice against streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci organisms that do not produce penicillinase
-Also medication of choice for gonorrhea and syphilis
Adverse effects: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, superinfections, anaphylaxis
Prototype drug: cefotaxime (Claforan)
Mechanism of action: to act with broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms
Primary use: for serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints
Adverse effects: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain at injection site
Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity
Prototype drug: erythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin)
Mechanism of action: to act as spectrum similar to that of penicillins
-Also to be effective against gram-positive bacteria
Primary use: for Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, most gram-positive bacteria
•Adverse effects: nausea, abdominal cramping, and vomiting
-Most severe is hepatotoxicity.
Prototype drug: gentamicin (Garamycin)
Mechanism of action: to act as broad-spectrum, bacteriocidal antibiotic
Primary use: for serious urinary, respiratory, nervous, or GI infections
-Often used in combination with other antibiotics
-Used parenterally or as drops (Genoptic) for eye infections
Adverse effects: ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
Some of broadest spectrums of any antibiotic class
Large number of resistant bacterial strains
•Drugs of choice for only a few diseases
-Rocky Mountain spotted fever
-Typhus, cholera, Lyme disease
-Peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori
•Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis with bacteriostatic effect
•Bind with calcium and iron to decrease absorption by up to 50%
-Do not take with milk.
•Permanent yellow-brown tooth discoloration in children
•Risk for superinfection is high
•Safe alternatives to penicillin
•Effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
•Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosome
•Bacteriostatic at low doses and bacteriocidal at high doses
•Drug of choice for whooping cough, Legionnaire's disease
-Also infections caused by streptococcus, H. influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia
•Broad spectrum, so superinfections may occur
•Otherwise, no serious side effects
•Narrow-spectrum drugs, bacteriocidal
•Reserved for serious systemic infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria
-E. coli, serratia, proteus, klebsiella, and pseudomonas
•Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
•More toxic than most antibiotics
•Have potential to cause serious adverse effects
-Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockade
•Note difference in spelling "mycin" and "micin"—reflects origins of drug
• Similar in structure and function to penicillins
•Have beta-lactam ring; are bacteriocidal
•Widely prescribed anti-infective class
•More than 20 cephalosporins available
•Cross-sensitivity with penicillins (5-10% of population)
•Classified by generations
Generations of cephalosporins
-First (oldest): bacteria producing beta-lactamase are resistant
-Second: more potent, broader spectrum, more resistant to beta-lactamase
-Third: longer duration of action, even broader spectrum, resistant to beta-lactamase
-Fourth: effective against organisms that are resistant to earlier generations
-Third and fourth capable of entering CSF
•Are bacteriocidal and affect DNA synthesis by inhibiting two bacterial enzymes
•All have activity against gram-negative pathogens
•Newer drugs in class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
•Now four generations
-Used for infections of respiratory system, GI and GU tracts, skin and soft tissue infections
•Do not take with multivitamins or minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, or zinc ions
-Can decrease absorption by up to 90%
•Most serious adverse effects are dysrhythmias and liver failure
•CNS disturbances affect 1-8% of clients
•Do not use in children and pregnant or lactating women
•Are bacteriostatic and act by inhibiting folic acid
•Are broad spectrum
•Widespread use leads to resistance.
•Used in a combination to treat UTIs
•Also used to treat Pneumocystis carinii and shigella
•Anti-inflammatory properties can help with rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis
•Serious adverse effects
-Crystal development in urine, hypersensitivity reactions
-Nausea, vomiting, potentially fatal blood abnormalities
•Most effective against gram-positive bacteria
•Kill bacteria by disrupting cell wall with beta-lactam ring
•Beta-lactamase or penicillinase is enzyme allowing bacteria to be resistant
•New penicillins are penicillinase-resistant
-Examples: oxacillin and cloxacillin
•Combination drugs with beta-lactamase inhibitors
-Examples: clavulanate, sulbactam, tazobactam
•One of safest classes of antibiotic
•Allergy most common adverse effect
•If client allergic to penicillin, avoid cephalosporins
-Possibility of cross-hypersensitivity
•Other adverse effects
-Skin rash; decreased RBC, WBC, or platelet counts
For oral infections caused by bacteroides
-Associated with pseudomembranous colitis
-Metronidazole (Flagyl): used to treat H. pylori infections of stomach
effective for MRSA infections
•Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome
Oxazolidinones: linezolid (Zyvox)
as effective as vancomycin against MRSA
•Cyclic lipopeptides: daptomycin (Cubicin)—used to treat serious skin infections
•Carbapenems: imipenem (Primaxin) have some of the broadest spectrums
•Carbapenems: imipenem (Primaxin) have some of the broadest spectrums
•Ketolides: telithromycin (Ketek)—used for respiratory infections
•Glycylcyclines:tigecycline (Tygacil)—used for drug-resistant abdominal infections and complicated skin infections
azithromycin (Zithromax) PO; 500 mg as single dose, then 250 mg/day for 4 days
clarithromycin (Biaxin) PO; 250-500 mg bid
dirithromycin (Dynabac) PO; 500 mg/day
erythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin) PO; 250-500 mg bid or 333 mg tid
troleandomycin (Tao) PO; 250-500 mg q6h
amikacin (Amikin) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg bid
gentamicin (Garamycin, others) IM; 1.5-2.0 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 1-2 mg/kg bid-tid
kanamycin (Kantrex) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg bid-tid
neomycin (Mycifradin) IM; 1.3-2.6 mg/kg qid
netilmicin (Netromycin) IM; 1.3-2.2 mg/kg tid or 2.0-3.25 mg/kg bid
paromomycin (Humatin) PO; 7.5-12.5 mg/kg tid
streptomycin IM; 15 mg/kg up to 1 g as a single dose
tobramycin (Nebcin) IM; 1 mg/kg tid (max: 5 mg/kg/day
nalidixic acid (NeoGram) PO; Acute therapy: 1 g qid; PO; Chronic therapy: 500 mg qid
ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Septra) PO; 250-750 mg bid
lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) PO; 400 mg/day
norfloxacin (Noroxin) PO; 400 mg bid
ofloxacin (Floxin) PO; 200-400 mg bid
gatifloxacin (Tequin) PO; 400 mg tid
levofloxacin (Levaquin) PO; 250-500 mg/day
gemifloxacin (Factive) PO; 320 mg/day
moxifloxacin (Avelox) PO; 400 mg/day
trovafloxacin mesylate (Trovan) PO; 100-300 mg/day
Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, restlessness, pain and
inflammation at injection site, local burning, stinging and
corneal irritation (ophthalmic)
**Anaphylaxis, tendon rupture, superinfections,
photosensitivity, pseudomembranous colitis
demeclocycline (Declomycin) PO; 150 mg q6h or 300 mg q12h (max: 2.4 g/day)
doxycycline (Vibramycin, others) PO; 100 mg bid on Day 1, then 100 mg/day (max: 200 mg/day)
methacycline (Rondomycin) PO; 600 mg/day in 2-4 divided doses
minocycline (Minocin, others) PO; 200 mg as single dose followed by 100 mg bid
tetracycline (Achromycin, others) PO; 250-500 mg bid-qid (max: 2 g/day)
tigecycline (Tygacil) IV; 100 mg, followed by 50 mg q12h
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, flatulence,
diarrhea, mild phototoxicity, rash, dizziness,
stinging/burning with topical applications
**Anaphylaxis, secondary infections, hepatotoxicity,
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Drugs to treat bacterial infections
Antibiotics for Bacterial Infections
Antibiotics for Bacterial Infection
microbio antimicrobial drugs
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Fundamentals Ch 33 Sleep and rest
Unit 6 Test Study Cards
Exam 6 Intro
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MICROBIOLOGY PHASE 2 BOC
Clinical Micro Final Review