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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Key concept
  2. plasmids
  3. Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
  4. Tetracycline
  5. Cephalexin (Keflex)
  1. a Tetracyclines have some of the broadest spectrums of any antibiotic class. They are drugs of choice for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, cholera, Lyme disease, peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial infections.
  2. b Antitubercular agent
  3. c Cephalosporin
  4. d The small pieces of circular DNA that are transferred through conjugation, which is passing on the resistance gene to other bacteria.
  5. e Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
    Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
    Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
    Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
  2. Veneral disease, endometriosis
  3. *FIRST-GENERATION Fluoroquinolones
    nalidixic acid (NeoGram) PO; Acute therapy: 1 g qid; PO; Chronic therapy: 500 mg qid
    ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Septra) PO; 250-750 mg bid
    lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) PO; 400 mg/day
    norfloxacin (Noroxin) PO; 400 mg bid
    ofloxacin (Floxin) PO; 200-400 mg bid
    gatifloxacin (Tequin) PO; 400 mg tid
    levofloxacin (Levaquin) PO; 250-500 mg/day
    gemifloxacin (Factive) PO; 320 mg/day
    moxifloxacin (Avelox) PO; 400 mg/day
    trovafloxacin mesylate (Trovan) PO; 100-300 mg/day
  4. effective for MRSA infections
    •Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome
  5. The macrolides are safe alternatives to penicillin. They are effective against most gram-postive bacteria and many gram-negative species.

5 True/False questions

  1. PneumococciPrototype drug: penicillin G (Pentids)
    Mechanism of action: to kill bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
    Primary use: as drug of choice against streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci organisms that do not produce penicillinase
    -Also medication of choice for gonorrhea and syphilis
    Adverse effects: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, superinfections, anaphylaxis


  2. Key conceptHost factors such as immune system status, local conditions at the infection site, allergic reactions, age, and genetics influence the choice of antibiotic.


  3. Key conceptBacteria are described by their shape (bacilli, cocci, or spirilla), their ability to utilize oxygen (aerobic or anaerobic), and by their staining characteristics (gram positive or gram negative).


  4. Wide spectrumThe type of drug that is effective against a large number of different species of bacteria.


  5. host floraNormal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.