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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. tetracyclines
  2. Penicillins
  3. bacteriocidal
  4. Aminoglycosides
  5. penicillins
  1. a amikacin (Amikin) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg bid
    gentamicin (Garamycin, others) IM; 1.5-2.0 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 1-2 mg/kg bid-tid
    kanamycin (Kantrex) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg bid-tid
    neomycin (Mycifradin) IM; 1.3-2.6 mg/kg qid
    netilmicin (Netromycin) IM; 1.3-2.2 mg/kg tid or 2.0-3.25 mg/kg bid
    paromomycin (Humatin) PO; 7.5-12.5 mg/kg tid
    streptomycin IM; 15 mg/kg up to 1 g as a single dose
    tobramycin (Nebcin) IM; 1 mg/kg tid (max: 5 mg/kg/day
  2. b Medications that treat by killing bacteria.
  3. c Photosensitivity and teeth discoloration are potential adverse effects of this drug.
  4. d The antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.
  5. e •Most effective against gram-positive bacteria
    •Kill bacteria by disrupting cell wall with beta-lactam ring
    •Beta-lactamase or penicillinase is enzyme allowing bacteria to be resistant
    •New penicillins are penicillinase-resistant
    -Examples: oxacillin and cloxacillin
    •Combination drugs with beta-lactamase inhibitors
    -Examples: clavulanate, sulbactam, tazobactam
    •Penicillin—Adverse Effects
    •One of safest classes of antibiotic
    •Allergy most common adverse effect
    •If client allergic to penicillin, avoid cephalosporins
    -Possibility of cross-hypersensitivity
    •Other adverse effects
    -Skin rash; decreased RBC, WBC, or platelet counts

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Drug-resistant bacteria free to grow, in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and the client develops an infection that is resistant to conventional drug therapy.
  2. Occurs secondarily to anti-infective therapy.
  3. Multiple drug therapies are needed in the treatment of tuberculosis, since the complex microbes are slow growing and commonly develop drug resistance.
  4. Acquired resistance occurs when a pathogen acquires a gene for bacterial resistance, either through mutation or from another microbe. Resistance results in loss of antibiotic effectiveness and is worsened by the overprescribing of these agents.
  5. effective for MRSA infections
    •Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome

5 True/False questions

  1. culture and sensitivity testingDrug-resistant bacteria free to grow, in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and the client develops an infection that is resistant to conventional drug therapy.

          

  2. aminoglycosidesNarrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.

          

  3. gram-negativeBacteria that contain a thick cell wall and retain a purple color after staining. Staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci.

          

  4. AminoglycosideNarrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.

          

  5. Neomycin sulfate (Mycifradin)Aminoglycoside