5 Written questions
4 Matching questions
- Key concept
- a Medications that treat by killing bacteria.
- b Anti-infective drugs act by affecting the target organism's unique structure, metabolism, or life cycle and may be bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic.
- c Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
- d Antibiotics that are used against a wide variety of microorganisms.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Resistance has limited the usefulness of once widely prescribed sulfonamides to urinary tract infections and a few other specific infections.
- Errors in the genetic code of bacteria.
- •Most effective against gram-positive bacteria
•Kill bacteria by disrupting cell wall with beta-lactam ring
•Beta-lactamase or penicillinase is enzyme allowing bacteria to be resistant
•New penicillins are penicillinase-resistant
-Examples: oxacillin and cloxacillin
•Combination drugs with beta-lactamase inhibitors
-Examples: clavulanate, sulbactam, tazobactam
•One of safest classes of antibiotic
•Allergy most common adverse effect
•If client allergic to penicillin, avoid cephalosporins
-Possibility of cross-hypersensitivity
•Other adverse effects
-Skin rash; decreased RBC, WBC, or platelet counts
- The type of drug that is effective against a large number of different species of bacteria.
5 True/False questions
They kill the infectious agent. → A common side effect of anti-infective therapy which occur when microorganisms normally present in the body are destroyed.
Macrolide → •Safe alternatives to penicillin
•Effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
•Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosome
•Bacteriostatic at low doses and bacteriocidal at high doses
•Drug of choice for whooping cough, Legionnaire's disease
-Also infections caused by streptococcus, H. influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia
•Broad spectrum, so superinfections may occur
•Otherwise, no serious side effects
acquired resistance → Drug-resistant bacteria free to grow, in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and the client develops an infection that is resistant to conventional drug therapy.
Doxycycline hyclate (Doryx) → Tetracycline
aerobic → Bacteria that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment.