5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- a amikacin (Amikin) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg bid
gentamicin (Garamycin, others) IM; 1.5-2.0 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 1-2 mg/kg bid-tid
kanamycin (Kantrex) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg bid-tid
neomycin (Mycifradin) IM; 1.3-2.6 mg/kg qid
netilmicin (Netromycin) IM; 1.3-2.2 mg/kg tid or 2.0-3.25 mg/kg bid
paromomycin (Humatin) PO; 7.5-12.5 mg/kg tid
streptomycin IM; 15 mg/kg up to 1 g as a single dose
tobramycin (Nebcin) IM; 1 mg/kg tid (max: 5 mg/kg/day
- b Medications that treat by killing bacteria.
- c Photosensitivity and teeth discoloration are potential adverse effects of this drug.
- d The antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.
- e •Most effective against gram-positive bacteria
•Kill bacteria by disrupting cell wall with beta-lactam ring
•Beta-lactamase or penicillinase is enzyme allowing bacteria to be resistant
•New penicillins are penicillinase-resistant
-Examples: oxacillin and cloxacillin
•Combination drugs with beta-lactamase inhibitors
-Examples: clavulanate, sulbactam, tazobactam
•One of safest classes of antibiotic
•Allergy most common adverse effect
•If client allergic to penicillin, avoid cephalosporins
-Possibility of cross-hypersensitivity
•Other adverse effects
-Skin rash; decreased RBC, WBC, or platelet counts
5 Multiple choice questions
- Drug-resistant bacteria free to grow, in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and the client develops an infection that is resistant to conventional drug therapy.
- Occurs secondarily to anti-infective therapy.
- Multiple drug therapies are needed in the treatment of tuberculosis, since the complex microbes are slow growing and commonly develop drug resistance.
- Acquired resistance occurs when a pathogen acquires a gene for bacterial resistance, either through mutation or from another microbe. Resistance results in loss of antibiotic effectiveness and is worsened by the overprescribing of these agents.
- effective for MRSA infections
•Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome
5 True/False questions
culture and sensitivity testing → Drug-resistant bacteria free to grow, in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and the client develops an infection that is resistant to conventional drug therapy.
aminoglycosides → Narrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.
gram-negative → Bacteria that contain a thick cell wall and retain a purple color after staining. Staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci.
Aminoglycoside → Narrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.
Neomycin sulfate (Mycifradin) → Aminoglycoside