5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Key concept
- Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
- Cephalexin (Keflex)
- a Tetracyclines have some of the broadest spectrums of any antibiotic class. They are drugs of choice for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, cholera, Lyme disease, peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial infections.
- b Antitubercular agent
- c Cephalosporin
- d The small pieces of circular DNA that are transferred through conjugation, which is passing on the resistance gene to other bacteria.
- e Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity
5 Multiple choice questions
- Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
- Veneral disease, endometriosis
- *FIRST-GENERATION Fluoroquinolones
nalidixic acid (NeoGram) PO; Acute therapy: 1 g qid; PO; Chronic therapy: 500 mg qid
ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Septra) PO; 250-750 mg bid
lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) PO; 400 mg/day
norfloxacin (Noroxin) PO; 400 mg bid
ofloxacin (Floxin) PO; 200-400 mg bid
gatifloxacin (Tequin) PO; 400 mg tid
levofloxacin (Levaquin) PO; 250-500 mg/day
gemifloxacin (Factive) PO; 320 mg/day
moxifloxacin (Avelox) PO; 400 mg/day
trovafloxacin mesylate (Trovan) PO; 100-300 mg/day
- effective for MRSA infections
•Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome
- The macrolides are safe alternatives to penicillin. They are effective against most gram-postive bacteria and many gram-negative species.
5 True/False questions
Pneumococci → Prototype drug: penicillin G (Pentids)
Mechanism of action: to kill bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
Primary use: as drug of choice against streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci organisms that do not produce penicillinase
-Also medication of choice for gonorrhea and syphilis
Adverse effects: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, superinfections, anaphylaxis
Key concept → Host factors such as immune system status, local conditions at the infection site, allergic reactions, age, and genetics influence the choice of antibiotic.
Key concept → Bacteria are described by their shape (bacilli, cocci, or spirilla), their ability to utilize oxygen (aerobic or anaerobic), and by their staining characteristics (gram positive or gram negative).
Wide spectrum → The type of drug that is effective against a large number of different species of bacteria.
host flora → Normal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.