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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. penicillins
  2. Erythromycin (E-mycin)
  3. Oxazolidinones: linezolid (Zyvox)
  4. Vancomycin (Vancocin)
  1. a as effective as vancomycin against MRSA
  2. b Fluoroquinolone or miscellaneous
  3. c The antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.
  4. d The antibiotic that would most likely be used for the dental client allergic to penicillin.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. A general term for any medication that is effective against pathogens.
  2. A number of miscellaneous antibacterials have specific indications, distinct antibacterial mechanisms, and related nursing care.
  3. A reaction that can occur with rapid IV administration and includes hypotension with flushing and a red rash on the face and upper body.
  4. •Cyclic lipopeptides: daptomycin (Cubicin)—used to treat serious skin infections
    •Carbapenems: imipenem (Primaxin) have some of the broadest spectrums
    •Carbapenems: imipenem (Primaxin) have some of the broadest spectrums
    •Ketolides: telithromycin (Ketek)—used for respiratory infections
    •Glycylcyclines:tigecycline (Tygacil)—used for drug-resistant abdominal infections and complicated skin infections
  5. Anti-infective drugs act by affecting the target organism's unique structure, metabolism, or life cycle and may be bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic.

5 True/False questions

  1. narrow-spectrum antibioticsA term used more frequently, but technically only refers to natural substances produced by microorganisms that can kill other microorganisms.

          

  2. pathogenicityThe ability of an organism to cause infection.

          

  3. Key conceptThe antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.

          

  4. Penicillins•Most effective against gram-positive bacteria
    •Kill bacteria by disrupting cell wall with beta-lactam ring
    •Beta-lactamase or penicillinase is enzyme allowing bacteria to be resistant
    •New penicillins are penicillinase-resistant
    -Examples: oxacillin and cloxacillin
    •Combination drugs with beta-lactamase inhibitors
    -Examples: clavulanate, sulbactam, tazobactam
    •Penicillin—Adverse Effects
    •One of safest classes of antibiotic
    •Allergy most common adverse effect
    •If client allergic to penicillin, avoid cephalosporins
    -Possibility of cross-hypersensitivity
    •Other adverse effects
    -Skin rash; decreased RBC, WBC, or platelet counts

          

  5. Fluoroquinolones SE*FIRST-GENERATION Fluoroquinolones
    nalidixic acid (NeoGram) PO; Acute therapy: 1 g qid; PO; Chronic therapy: 500 mg qid
    *SECOND-GENERATION
    ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Septra) PO; 250-750 mg bid
    lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) PO; 400 mg/day
    norfloxacin (Noroxin) PO; 400 mg bid
    ofloxacin (Floxin) PO; 200-400 mg bid
    *THIRD-GENERATION
    gatifloxacin (Tequin) PO; 400 mg tid
    levofloxacin (Levaquin) PO; 250-500 mg/day
    *FOURTH-GENERATION
    gemifloxacin (Factive) PO; 320 mg/day
    moxifloxacin (Avelox) PO; 400 mg/day
    trovafloxacin mesylate (Trovan) PO; 100-300 mg/day