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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. broad-spectrum antibiotics
  2. Fluoroquinolones
  3. Penicillin
  4. Rickettsia
  5. anti-infective
  1. a Drugs that are effective against many different species of pathogens.
  2. b A general term for any medication that is effective against pathogens.
  3. c *FIRST-GENERATION Fluoroquinolones
    nalidixic acid (NeoGram) PO; Acute therapy: 1 g qid; PO; Chronic therapy: 500 mg qid
    *SECOND-GENERATION
    ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Septra) PO; 250-750 mg bid
    lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) PO; 400 mg/day
    norfloxacin (Noroxin) PO; 400 mg bid
    ofloxacin (Floxin) PO; 200-400 mg bid
    *THIRD-GENERATION
    gatifloxacin (Tequin) PO; 400 mg tid
    levofloxacin (Levaquin) PO; 250-500 mg/day
    *FOURTH-GENERATION
    gemifloxacin (Factive) PO; 320 mg/day
    moxifloxacin (Avelox) PO; 400 mg/day
    trovafloxacin mesylate (Trovan) PO; 100-300 mg/day
  4. d Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  5. e Prototype drug: penicillin G (Pentids)
    Mechanism of action: to kill bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
    Primary use: as drug of choice against streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci organisms that do not produce penicillinase
    -Also medication of choice for gonorrhea and syphilis
    Adverse effects: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, superinfections, anaphylaxis

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Narrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.
  2. An enzyme secreted by bacteria that limits the therapeutic usefulness of penicillins.
  3. •Are bacteriocidal and affect DNA synthesis by inhibiting two bacterial enzymes
    •All have activity against gram-negative pathogens
    •Newer drugs in class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
    •Now four generations
    -Used for infections of respiratory system, GI and GU tracts, skin and soft tissue infections
    •Fluoroquinolones—
    Adverse Effects
    •Do not take with multivitamins or minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, or zinc ions
    -Can decrease absorption by up to 90%
    •Most serious adverse effects are dysrhythmias and liver failure
    •CNS disturbances affect 1-8% of clients
    •Do not use in children and pregnant or lactating women
  4. Acquired resistance occurs when a pathogen acquires a gene for bacterial resistance, either through mutation or from another microbe. Resistance results in loss of antibiotic effectiveness and is worsened by the overprescribing of these agents.
  5. Host factors such as immune system status, local conditions at the infection site, allergic reactions, age, and genetics influence the choice of antibiotic.

5 True/False questions

  1. Sulfonamides•Are bacteriostatic and act by inhibiting folic acid
    •Are broad spectrum
    •Widespread use leads to resistance.
    •Used in a combination to treat UTIs
    •Also used to treat Pneumocystis carinii and shigella
    •Anti-inflammatory properties can help with rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis
    Adverse Effects-
    •Generally safe
    •Serious adverse effects
    -Crystal development in urine, hypersensitivity reactions
    -Nausea, vomiting, potentially fatal blood abnormalities

          

  2. Macrolidesazithromycin (Zithromax) PO; 500 mg as single dose, then 250 mg/day for 4 days
    clarithromycin (Biaxin) PO; 250-500 mg bid
    dirithromycin (Dynabac) PO; 500 mg/day
    erythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin) PO; 250-500 mg bid or 333 mg tid
    troleandomycin (Tao) PO; 250-500 mg q6h

          

  3. Oxazolidinones: linezolid (Zyvox)The drug of choice for the treatment of M. tuberculosis.

          

  4. pathogenicityPrototype drug: penicillin G (Pentids)
    Mechanism of action: to kill bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
    Primary use: as drug of choice against streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci organisms that do not produce penicillinase
    -Also medication of choice for gonorrhea and syphilis
    Adverse effects: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, superinfections, anaphylaxis

          

  5. Key conceptThe cephalosporins are similar in structure and function to the penicillins and are one of the most widely prescribed anti-infective classes. Cross-sensitivity may exist with the penicillins in some clients.