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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Macrolides
  2. Oxazolidinones: linezolid (Zyvox)
  3. tetracyclines
  4. pathogenicity
  5. tubercles
  1. a In tuberculosis slow-growing mycobacteria usually become dormant, existing inside cavities called this.
  2. b •Safe alternatives to penicillin
    •Effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
    •Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosome
    •Bacteriostatic at low doses and bacteriocidal at high doses
    •Drug of choice for whooping cough, Legionnaire's disease
    -Also infections caused by streptococcus, H. influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia
    •Broad spectrum, so superinfections may occur
    •Otherwise, no serious side effects
  3. c The ability of an organism to cause infection.
  4. d as effective as vancomycin against MRSA
  5. e Photosensitivity and teeth discoloration are potential adverse effects of this drug.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Penicillins, which kill bacteria by disrupting the cell wall, are most effective against gram-positive bacteria. Allergies occur most frequently with the penicillins.
  2. The advantage of using amoxicillin (Amoxil) over penicillin G.
  3. Medications that treat by killing bacteria.
  4. The process of growing out the pathogen and identifying the most effective antibiotic.
  5. Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
    Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
    Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
    Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity

5 True/False questions

  1. Marcrolidesazithromycin (Zithromax) PO; 500 mg as single dose, then 250 mg/day for 4 days
    clarithromycin (Biaxin) PO; 250-500 mg bid
    dirithromycin (Dynabac) PO; 500 mg/day
    erythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin) PO; 250-500 mg bid or 333 mg tid
    troleandomycin (Tao) PO; 250-500 mg q6h

          

  2. Wide spectrumAntibiotics that are used against a wide variety of microorganisms.

          

  3. Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)Cephalosporin

          

  4. superinfectionsOccurs secondarily to anti-infective therapy.

          

  5. beta-lactamaseAlso called penicillnase, an enzyme secreted by bacteria which splits the beta-lactam ring. This allows these bacteria to become resistant to the effects of most penicillins.

          

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