5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Oxazolidinones: linezolid (Zyvox)
- a In tuberculosis slow-growing mycobacteria usually become dormant, existing inside cavities called this.
- b •Safe alternatives to penicillin
•Effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
•Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosome
•Bacteriostatic at low doses and bacteriocidal at high doses
•Drug of choice for whooping cough, Legionnaire's disease
-Also infections caused by streptococcus, H. influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia
•Broad spectrum, so superinfections may occur
•Otherwise, no serious side effects
- c The ability of an organism to cause infection.
- d as effective as vancomycin against MRSA
- e Photosensitivity and teeth discoloration are potential adverse effects of this drug.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Penicillins, which kill bacteria by disrupting the cell wall, are most effective against gram-positive bacteria. Allergies occur most frequently with the penicillins.
- The advantage of using amoxicillin (Amoxil) over penicillin G.
- Medications that treat by killing bacteria.
- The process of growing out the pathogen and identifying the most effective antibiotic.
- Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity
5 True/False questions
Marcrolides → azithromycin (Zithromax) PO; 500 mg as single dose, then 250 mg/day for 4 days
clarithromycin (Biaxin) PO; 250-500 mg bid
dirithromycin (Dynabac) PO; 500 mg/day
erythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin) PO; 250-500 mg bid or 333 mg tid
troleandomycin (Tao) PO; 250-500 mg q6h
Wide spectrum → Antibiotics that are used against a wide variety of microorganisms.
Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) → Cephalosporin
superinfections → Occurs secondarily to anti-infective therapy.
beta-lactamase → Also called penicillnase, an enzyme secreted by bacteria which splits the beta-lactam ring. This allows these bacteria to become resistant to the effects of most penicillins.