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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. Key concept
  2. broad-spectrum
  3. bacteriocidal
  4. mutations
  1. a Medications that treat by killing bacteria.
  2. b Anti-infective drugs act by affecting the target organism's unique structure, metabolism, or life cycle and may be bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic.
  3. c Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
  4. d Antibiotics that are used against a wide variety of microorganisms.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Resistance has limited the usefulness of once widely prescribed sulfonamides to urinary tract infections and a few other specific infections.
  2. Errors in the genetic code of bacteria.
  3. •Most effective against gram-positive bacteria
    •Kill bacteria by disrupting cell wall with beta-lactam ring
    •Beta-lactamase or penicillinase is enzyme allowing bacteria to be resistant
    •New penicillins are penicillinase-resistant
    -Examples: oxacillin and cloxacillin
    •Combination drugs with beta-lactamase inhibitors
    -Examples: clavulanate, sulbactam, tazobactam
    •Penicillin—Adverse Effects
    •One of safest classes of antibiotic
    •Allergy most common adverse effect
    •If client allergic to penicillin, avoid cephalosporins
    -Possibility of cross-hypersensitivity
    •Other adverse effects
    -Skin rash; decreased RBC, WBC, or platelet counts
  4. Cephalosporin
  5. The type of drug that is effective against a large number of different species of bacteria.

5 True/False questions

  1. They kill the infectious agent.A common side effect of anti-infective therapy which occur when microorganisms normally present in the body are destroyed.


  2. Macrolide•Safe alternatives to penicillin
    •Effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
    •Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosome
    •Bacteriostatic at low doses and bacteriocidal at high doses
    •Drug of choice for whooping cough, Legionnaire's disease
    -Also infections caused by streptococcus, H. influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia
    •Broad spectrum, so superinfections may occur
    •Otherwise, no serious side effects


  3. acquired resistanceDrug-resistant bacteria free to grow, in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and the client develops an infection that is resistant to conventional drug therapy.


  4. Doxycycline hyclate (Doryx)Tetracycline


  5. aerobicBacteria that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment.