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35 terms

Unit 3 THE GLOBAL LINGUISTIC MOSAIC

Chapters 8, 9, 10, 31
STUDY
PLAY
Language
Means of communicating using signs, gestures or sounds
Dialect
Variants of standard language
Language Family
A group of languages that are thought to have descended from a single, common ancestral tongue
Language Subfamily
The languages commonality is more definite
Language Group
Individual languages
Isogloss
Geographic Boundary
Preliterate society
People who speak their language but cannot write it
Standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
Indo-European languages
Languages spoken by about half the world's peoples
Language convergence
Union of languages
Language divergence
Break up of languages
Language replacement
Modification of a language by stronger cultures
Sound shifts
Tracing language change
Deep reconstruction
Process of finding a vocab of a distinct language and then going backwards.
Proto Indo-European
Origin of Indo-European
Nostratic
Pre-Proto Indo-European language
Na-Dene
2nd oldest, 2nd largest, less widely spread family
Amerind
Oldest, largest and most widely spread distributed family
Eskimo-Aleut
Speakers of this language arrived to North America last
Agriculture theory
Proto Indo-European started in a farming community (Anatolia)
Conquest theory
Proto Indo-European began in the empire-building Kurgan culture (Ukraine)
Toponymy
The study of place names
Official language
Multilingual countries select a language to enhance communication
Monolingual states
Countries in which only one language is spoken
Multilingual states
Countries in which more than one language is in use.
Lingual franca
A common language between 2 different language speakers
Pidgin
Combining parts of 2 or more languages
Creole
A pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people
Esperanto
An effort to create a world language
Racism
Belief that one race is more superior to another one
Ethnicity
socially recognized cultural differences that set groups apart from each other
Plural society
a society in which several ethnic groupings coexist, each living in communities or regions variously separate from the others
Ethnic islands
a small ethnic area in the rural countryside; sometimes called a folk island.
Cultural linkage
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity
Cultural revival
The regeneration of a long - dormant culture through internal renewal and external infusion.