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Chapters 8, 9, 10, 31


Means of communicating using signs, gestures or sounds


Variants of standard language

Language Family

A group of languages that are thought to have descended from a single, common ancestral tongue

Language Subfamily

The languages commonality is more definite

Language Group

Individual languages


Geographic Boundary

Preliterate society

People who speak their language but cannot write it

Standard language

The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications

Indo-European languages

Languages spoken by about half the world's peoples

Language convergence

Union of languages

Language divergence

Break up of languages

Language replacement

Modification of a language by stronger cultures

Sound shifts

Tracing language change

Deep reconstruction

Process of finding a vocab of a distinct language and then going backwards.

Proto Indo-European

Origin of Indo-European


Pre-Proto Indo-European language


2nd oldest, 2nd largest, less widely spread family


Oldest, largest and most widely spread distributed family


Speakers of this language arrived to North America last

Agriculture theory

Proto Indo-European started in a farming community (Anatolia)

Conquest theory

Proto Indo-European began in the empire-building Kurgan culture (Ukraine)


The study of place names

Official language

Multilingual countries select a language to enhance communication

Monolingual states

Countries in which only one language is spoken

Multilingual states

Countries in which more than one language is in use.

Lingual franca

A common language between 2 different language speakers


Combining parts of 2 or more languages


A pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people


An effort to create a world language


Belief that one race is more superior to another one


socially recognized cultural differences that set groups apart from each other

Plural society

a society in which several ethnic groupings coexist, each living in communities or regions variously separate from the others

Ethnic islands

a small ethnic area in the rural countryside; sometimes called a folk island.

Cultural linkage

a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity

Cultural revival

The regeneration of a long - dormant culture through internal renewal and external infusion.

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