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part of telecephalon; makes up 40% of brain; not necessary for life, but defines quality of life and necessary for normal consciousness

Area 4 - Motor Cortex

neurons projecting make up the pyramidal tract which synapse with anterior horn cell mono and di synaptically; lesions produce contralateral hypotonia and weakness paralysis

large betz pyramidal cells

project to lower motor neurons; many code for duration of contraction, force of contraction, and muscles required for the contraction

Area 6 - Supplementary motor area

important for planning complex tasks, sequencing motor subroutines prior to movement, and bilateral ablation results in akinesia and mutism

Area 6 - Premotor cortex

important for gross postural movements; appears to learn complicated movements

spastic paralysis

large lesion of premotor cortex results in this

motor apraxia

small lesion of premotor cortex results in this


inability to perform a complicated task in the absence of paralysis

Area 8 - Frontal eye fields

conscious movement of eyes; lesions result in deviation of the eyes in the direction of the lesion

Area 9, 10, & 46

involved with memory, emotion, and intellectual functions; unilateral lesions produce variable effects and bilateral lesions produce very disturbed and inappropriate individuals

Area 3, 1, 2 - Primary Sensory cortex

involved with conscious appreciation of sensory input; ablation results in contralateral inability to localize and sense sensations

Area 5, 7 - Sensory association areas

integrates and refines sensory info; lesions result in graphesthesia, asteriognosis, baroagnosis, and left neglect


inability to recognize a letter or number written on patient's hand


inability to know a structure in your hand


can't judge weight

left neglect

right side lesion resulting in unilateral inattention

area 11

orbitofrontal area concerned with visceral and emotional activities and planning for the future; area destroyed in prefrontal lobotomies

Area 17 - primary visual cortex

lesions result in cortical blindness but retains light reflex

Area 18 & 19

visual association area; lesions result in loss of movement discrimination, color discrimination, and visual-spatial processing

Area 41 & 42

primary auditory cortex; lesions result in bilateral hearing loss; may lead to language problems

Area 22

auditory association area

Wernicke's area

dominant hemisphere in area 22; lesion produces word deafness and receptive aphasia

Area 21 & 20

temporal visual association area; involved with visual memory; lesions may result in visual anomia, visual agnosia, acromatopsia, and prosopagnosia

visual anomia

can't name an object

visual agnosia

can't recognize an object


can't recognize colors


can't recognize faces

Area 43

taste center

Broca's Area

dominant hemisphere of area 44 & 45; important for speech; lesions result in expressive aphasia

dominant hemisphere

side that houses language

right hemisphere function

nonverbal, big picture, complex visual patter recognition, emotional expression, and music

left hemisphere function

language, math, analytical functions, and logical in thought

corpus callosum

part of brain that is cut to treat uncontrollable epilepsy

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