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part of telecephalon; makes up 40% of brain; not necessary for life, but defines quality of life and necessary for normal consciousness
Area 4 - Motor Cortex
neurons projecting make up the pyramidal tract which synapse with anterior horn cell mono and di synaptically; lesions produce contralateral hypotonia and weakness paralysis
large betz pyramidal cells
project to lower motor neurons; many code for duration of contraction, force of contraction, and muscles required for the contraction
Area 6 - Supplementary motor area
important for planning complex tasks, sequencing motor subroutines prior to movement, and bilateral ablation results in akinesia and mutism
Area 6 - Premotor cortex
important for gross postural movements; appears to learn complicated movements
Area 8 - Frontal eye fields
conscious movement of eyes; lesions result in deviation of the eyes in the direction of the lesion
Area 9, 10, & 46
involved with memory, emotion, and intellectual functions; unilateral lesions produce variable effects and bilateral lesions produce very disturbed and inappropriate individuals
Area 3, 1, 2 - Primary Sensory cortex
involved with conscious appreciation of sensory input; ablation results in contralateral inability to localize and sense sensations
Area 5, 7 - Sensory association areas
integrates and refines sensory info; lesions result in graphesthesia, asteriognosis, baroagnosis, and left neglect
orbitofrontal area concerned with visceral and emotional activities and planning for the future; area destroyed in prefrontal lobotomies
Area 18 & 19
visual association area; lesions result in loss of movement discrimination, color discrimination, and visual-spatial processing
Area 41 & 42
primary auditory cortex; lesions result in bilateral hearing loss; may lead to language problems
Area 21 & 20
temporal visual association area; involved with visual memory; lesions may result in visual anomia, visual agnosia, acromatopsia, and prosopagnosia
dominant hemisphere of area 44 & 45; important for speech; lesions result in expressive aphasia
right hemisphere function
nonverbal, big picture, complex visual patter recognition, emotional expression, and music
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