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33 terms

Cerebral Cortex

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cortex
part of telecephalon; makes up 40% of brain; not necessary for life, but defines quality of life and necessary for normal consciousness
Area 4 - Motor Cortex
neurons projecting make up the pyramidal tract which synapse with anterior horn cell mono and di synaptically; lesions produce contralateral hypotonia and weakness paralysis
large betz pyramidal cells
project to lower motor neurons; many code for duration of contraction, force of contraction, and muscles required for the contraction
Area 6 - Supplementary motor area
important for planning complex tasks, sequencing motor subroutines prior to movement, and bilateral ablation results in akinesia and mutism
Area 6 - Premotor cortex
important for gross postural movements; appears to learn complicated movements
spastic paralysis
large lesion of premotor cortex results in this
motor apraxia
small lesion of premotor cortex results in this
apraxia
inability to perform a complicated task in the absence of paralysis
Area 8 - Frontal eye fields
conscious movement of eyes; lesions result in deviation of the eyes in the direction of the lesion
Area 9, 10, & 46
involved with memory, emotion, and intellectual functions; unilateral lesions produce variable effects and bilateral lesions produce very disturbed and inappropriate individuals
Area 3, 1, 2 - Primary Sensory cortex
involved with conscious appreciation of sensory input; ablation results in contralateral inability to localize and sense sensations
Area 5, 7 - Sensory association areas
integrates and refines sensory info; lesions result in graphesthesia, asteriognosis, baroagnosis, and left neglect
graphesthesia
inability to recognize a letter or number written on patient's hand
asteriognosis
inability to know a structure in your hand
baroagnosis
can't judge weight
left neglect
right side lesion resulting in unilateral inattention
area 11
orbitofrontal area concerned with visceral and emotional activities and planning for the future; area destroyed in prefrontal lobotomies
Area 17 - primary visual cortex
lesions result in cortical blindness but retains light reflex
Area 18 & 19
visual association area; lesions result in loss of movement discrimination, color discrimination, and visual-spatial processing
Area 41 & 42
primary auditory cortex; lesions result in bilateral hearing loss; may lead to language problems
Area 22
auditory association area
Wernicke's area
dominant hemisphere in area 22; lesion produces word deafness and receptive aphasia
Area 21 & 20
temporal visual association area; involved with visual memory; lesions may result in visual anomia, visual agnosia, acromatopsia, and prosopagnosia
visual anomia
can't name an object
visual agnosia
can't recognize an object
acromatopsia
can't recognize colors
prosopagnosia
can't recognize faces
Area 43
taste center
Broca's Area
dominant hemisphere of area 44 & 45; important for speech; lesions result in expressive aphasia
dominant hemisphere
side that houses language
right hemisphere function
nonverbal, big picture, complex visual patter recognition, emotional expression, and music
left hemisphere function
language, math, analytical functions, and logical in thought
corpus callosum
part of brain that is cut to treat uncontrollable epilepsy