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Tudor and Stuarts Final Terms
Terms for History 360
Terms in this set (65)
Presbyterianism was established in Scotland in the 1560s under the leadership of John Knox. The Presbyterian Church was a bottom-up church, meaning that each church elects a group of male elders, some of these elders serve in a local presbytery along with the local clergy, and the presbytery in turn sends delegates to a national general assembly, which rules on matters of doctrine, settles theological disputes, etc. No King of England would have permitted the development of such a system because it would have undermined his authority. The rise of Presbyterianism was significant because it started right when James VI, Mary QoS' son, took the Scottish throne. It was only when he was 13 that he started taking more direct control of the government, though he doesn't have complete control until age 21.
The Hampton Court Conference
When James ascended the English throne, many different religious groups fastened their hopes on him for different reasons, and he hoped to act as a peacemaker. In 1604, he chaired the Hampton Court Conference, which he hoped would bring together the Puritans and the so-called anti-Puritans. During this conference, James agreed to commission a new translation of the Bible, which was completed in 1611. But the conference failed to bring together the two sides, with James' statement of "no bishop, no king" indicating that he was inherently anti-Puritan despite wanting to be a peacemaker.
not about Calvinism or John Calvin AT ALL
* About Robert Calvin, a 2 year old in 1608, who inherited some land in Britain which was withheld from him by Englishmen who said Scotsmen cannot hold English land. Robert's guardians sued, saying Robert was in fact English because he had been born after James became King of England. The case ruled that anyone born in James' territories after James took the throne of England in 1603 was in fact British (even Scotsmen).
Continuing from the definition of Calvin's Case above, post-nati was a term used to describe anyone born after 1603 - therefore making those people born on any of James' territory after his ascension to the English throne Englishmen, whether or not they were born in England. Ante-nati was the term used to refer to those born before 1603.
Guy Fawkes was a Catholic Yorkshire-born Englishman who led the Gunpowder Plot. Every year on the 5th of November England celebrates Bonfire Night, and they burn little models of Guy Fawkes.
The Gunpowder Plot
A plot led by Guy Fawkes to blow up the Houses of Parliament from underneath on the first day it met in November 1605. The first day was significant because the monarch came and all of the English elites would be there. A letter warned the Catholic-associated Lord Monteagle about the plot because the plotters didn't want to blow up the Catholics in the building but Monteagle turned the letter over to authorities almost immediately and so it was a non-event that is remembered very significantly but the plot itself failed. All of the conspirators, including Guy Fawkes, were swiftly executed, and their heads were placed on pikes. The gunpowder plot was used to celebrate anti-popery and fighting off Catholic threats; it became symbolic of God protecting the Protestant English nation, despite the fact that most Catholics at the time were loyal to the English crown.
James VI and I marries off his daughter, Princess Elizabeth to Frederick V, Elector Palatine, a major Protestant prince, in 1612. The marriage was actually great on personal terms—they had met before the marriage and they married in London before going back to Germany—but disastrous in diplomatic terms. It is important to recall that Germany at this point is fragmented into principalities practicing different religions because there were divisions in the early phases of the Reformation. As soon as Frederick V becomes king, the Hapsburgs go berserk. But the Hapsburg Emperor first forms an alliance with the Holy Roman Emperor, and then basically destroys Frederick. Frederick is simultaneously trying to form alliances with his father in law, James VI & I, but James is a peacemaker and refuses to become involved because it's expensive and he had warned Frederick against becoming the king of Bohemia. So at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, Frederick faces the Spanish and the Bavarians alone and loses.
cuius regio, euus religio
"Whose realm, his religion" was enshrined at the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. The religion of the prince would be the religion of the principality, essentially. It was a way of dealing with religious diversity while still technically allowing religious freedom.
The Second Defenestration of Prague
Takes place in 1618 at the beginning of the Thirty Years War. Three Catholic knights are thrown out of a window, surviving only because they land on a pile of dung. One of them is later promoted to nobility by the Holy Roman Emperor. The first defenestration was back in 1419 with the Hussites and that also resulted in a period of conflict. Following the second defenestration, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs start preparing for war. It was at this time that Ferdinand II, newly elected Emperor, was deposed as king of Bohemia by the Bohemian estates in favor of the Calvinist Frederick V. But of course, the Battle of White Mountain—which became the first battle of the Thirty Years War—saw Ferdinand seize control of Bohemia again just two years later.
Peace of Westphalia
1648- The Lower Palatinate was restored to Frederick's son, the title of Elector was also restored.
The Independence of the Dutch Republic was officially recognized by the Spanish
The Austrian Hapsburg kept control of Bohemia
France gained territory in Western Germany
1648, signifies the end of the 30 years war.
L.P. is given back to Frederick V's son, restoring him to the title of Elector Palatinate
U.P. remains in the possession of the Duke of Bavaria, who also retains the Elector title
Spain recognizes Dutch independence
Habsburgs retain control over Bohemia
France gets a western chunk of Germany
signifies the rise of France
Survival of Protestantism in Germany
The Spanish Match
This whole debacle that started in 1621 when James tried to marry Charles off to the Spanish Infanta in an attempted treaty to get Frederick and Elizabeth the Lower Palatinate back. The Spanish stall for two years, and by this time 23 year old Charles is itching to get things moving and decides to take things into his own hands. He gets permission to head down to Spain with James' lover the Duke of Buckingham, where they chill for 6 months. Charles acts a little crazy, climbing the Infanta's garden wall to try to see her. He makes a royal fool of himself and then James sends a fleet to pick them up and they go home knowing the marriage won't work out. When Charles returns home, the English people are cheering, (1) because the heir to the throne is back in the country safe, and (2) because he didn't marry a Catholic, Spanish princess. After this, Charles is humiliated and angry and wants to go to war with Spain, but James is like "no, I'm a peacemaker".
Queen Henrietta Maria
Catholic, sister of the French King
The English people are not happy about French marriage
She was 15, he was 24, she did not speak any English, Charles spoke to her in French
Told her, she could worship as a Catholic in private, but could not pass it on to her children
Charles' wife; they are married in 1624 when Charles is 24 and she is 15. She is Catholic and the sister of the French King. The English people are not happy about the match, but their marriage seems to have been a happy one (they could communicate with each other which is always a plus). James dies a few weeks before the wedding, so until Charles and Henrietta Maria have kids, the next heir is Elizabeth.
During this time period, voting was partially based on borough constituencies that had two members each. Old Sarum was particularly interesting because by the 17th century, the town had moved away but people still owned land there. Five people controlled the property and therefore there were five voters. Old Sarum was abolished as a parliamentary borough as part of the Great Reform Act of 1832 because by the 19th century, boroughs like Old Sarum were seen as symptomatic of corruption. They were known as "rotten boroughs" because they weren't seen as representative of the people at all—a concern that hadn't been fleshed out in the 17th century.
St. Stephen's Chapel
This was actually not a chapel but a chantry that had been dissolved by Edward VI. When he dissolved it, he decided to give it to the House of Commons, who used it as their meeting place from 1547 to 1834. It wasn't actually big enough to seat all 500 of its members, which people accepted because it was assumed that on any given day (except for the first day) no more than 300 members were going to show up.
tonnage and poundage
customs taxes levied against merchants importing goods; had to be levied by Parliament b/c one of their three powers was to levy taxes
not usually controversial BUT during Charles I's reign, parliament refused to pass tonnage and poundage for the rest of his life as he requested in 1625 because they wanted him to abolish impositions (additional duties imposed on certain items) that James I had created
when they did pass tonnage and poundage in 1625, they only passed it for one year
also refuse to grant t&p in the 1628 Parliament entirely unless Charles discusses his new modifications to religion with them, which he doesn't, leading to the mess w/ John Eliot (see below)
BUT Charles continues to collect t&p throughout this era and the Personal Rule b/c he needs the money to fight in wars
Parliament's refusal to levy tonnage and poundage shows that they are becoming increasingly assertive against the monarch and their power is on the rise
Charles's perceived insubordination in continuing to collect tonnage and poundage becomes a major grievance in the 1630s/40s
The Forced Loan
The Forced Loan of 1626 yielded £240,000 in revenue. Forced loans are only supposed to be called for in an emergency, and this wasn't necessarily a loan at all but a tax—it was assessed like a tax and the people paying it would have been the same people to pay a tax. Taxes have to have the consent of the House of Commons but Charles keeps insisting it's a loan so he gets away with not having their consent. 76 gentlemen and one earl go to prison for refusing to pay but Charles doesn't put them on trial for fear of them revealing that it's actually a tax. Finally, the five knights sue for a writ of habeas corpus.
Means "you are to have the body" in Latin. After the Forced Loan of 1626, five knights who refused to pay sued for a writ of habeas corpus, but they lost their case. The judges rule in the king's favor and send the knights back to prison. It is only two months later, after the entire forced loan had been collected, that the king let everyone out of prison.
A region on the west coast of France that eventually becomes majority Protestant. The French monarch around this time is trying to stamp out Huguenot strongholds, and La Rochelle is one of the last to be stamped out. In the 1620s, the French king uses some ships lent to him by the English—ships that were meant to attack the Spanish, not a Protestant stronghold—to lay siege and institute a naval blockade of La Rochelle. Charles decides he wants to save the day by breaking the blockade, but 5,000 Englishmen are lost and La Rochelle only manages to hang on for another year before being taken by French Catholics. Parliament saw La Rochelle and the previous raid on Cadiz as huge wastes of the money the subsidies had provided. But Charles refuses to let his advisers be questioned and threatens to dissolve Parliament if the duke of Buckingham (George Villiers) is impeached. So Parliament tries a Petition of Right instead.
The Petition of Right
In 1628, Parliament tells the king that if he accepts this petition, they will give him five subsidies, and at this point, La Rochelle still hadn't fallen so Charles still wants to save it. This was specifically a petition and not a law because the House of Lords refused to pass it, saying it was beneath the king's dignity and placed too many limitations on the king's power. But the king signs it anyway. The two main clauses are as follows: 1) Reaffirmed the right of English subjects to be free from arbitrary imprisonment without due process in a court of law (a right they already technically had under Magna Carta but after the five knights' case, reaffirmation felt necessary) and 2) Reaffirmed the right of English subjects to be free from taxes not approved by parliament (something that Charles goes along with because he continues to insist that the forced loan was never a tax).
Ironically, once Charles gets his subsidies and sends the duke of Buckingham to Portsmouth to prepare a fleet to go to La Rochelle, the duke is assassinated by a man named John Felton. Felton had been present at both Cadiz and Ile de Ré, he had not received all the payment he was owed, his hand had been injured, and he had been denied a promotion to captain, so he was an angry young man who decided to make a martyr of himself. Once he assassinated the duke he was immediately arrested and executed. At this point Charles is unhappy and decides to rule without Parliament, entering the period of Personal Rule and leaving his sister hanging.
The Petition of Rights
passed in 1628 by parliament after Charles war with Spain and France. parliament will vote Charles subsidies but not before he agrees to the petition of right. this lists the kingdom's grievances. it's very anti-tonnage and poundage. not want to Charles to raise a forced loan. this is the last straw before the 1640s- Charles dismisses parliament just after they pass this. this is parliament really trying to assert self. what's different between Charles's rule and Elizabeth's rule. parliament has a lot more power. this is not the moment that sparks the civil war. parliament is dismissed for the next decade or so. Charles dismisses parliament and parliament goes home.
Arminianism emerges in opposition to Calvinism in the Netherlands in the early 16th century under the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminus. The main difference between Arminianism and Calvinism has to do with the doctrine of salvation. Arminians carve out a larger space for human free will than do Calvinists. Arminians believe, for instance, that it is possible for someone to refuse salvation. Arminians believe that "God ignites the spark" in everyone but you can choose to resist, essentially vetoing God's salvation of you. Many people saw Arminianism as more just than Calvinism, and also less likely to lead to anti-nomianism because anti-nomians thought they could break the law because they thought that what you do doesn't matter under predestination). In 1628, Charles ordered the clergy to stop preaching on predestination, and this splintered the Calvinist consensus into two camps.
William Laud really hated Puritans because he thought of them as rebels who were defying lawful authority and disrespecting the beauty and orderliness of service by calling for the elimination of things like surplice. Charles didn't really like Puritans either so the two men united in their hatred of Puritans. Then they bonded even more when Laud's first patron, the duke of Buckingham, was assassinated and two were very upset. Laud went from the dean of Chapel Royal - preaching to the king - in 1626 to the archbishop of Canterbury in 1633. Laudian liturgy calls for the "beauty of holiness." Charles and Laud want to enforce Elizabeth's reforms in a way that James did not and they want uniformity—which means the disbanding of Puritan churches. Essentially, Charles and Laud want ministers to wear the surplice, to make the sign of the cross when administering Baptism and for the communion service to be more formal. Beauty of holiness liturgy forces ministers to do a lot of things they don't want to do and places a lot of emphasis on authority. Unlike Puritans, Laudians wanted a religion of the eye as much as of the ear so they liked stained glass and stuff. Laudians were Arminians who called for bishops while Puritans were Calvinists who opposed them. Finally Puritans in parliament in 1645 vote to execute Laud and he's gone.
Things indifferent, things that God just didn't mention in the Bible—like surplice or the sign of the cross or the rails. While Puritans believed in sola scriptura, Laudians believed that anything not explicitly forbidden in the bible, like the surplice, could be required and enforced by church authorities. But Puritans saw surplice as popish rags.
Sir John Eliot
Sir John Eliot was a member of the House of Commons in 1629. In 1629, Charles still wants tonnage and poundage, even though he's been unofficially levying it this whole time. Parliament refuses to grant tonnage and poundage until Charles discusses with them "new innovations in religion," a.k.a. Arminianism. A lot of Parliament is Calvinist and are unhappy about Charles ordering against the preaching of predestination. So Charles is annoyed and calls for Parliament to adjourn, but they take a while to do so. The speaker of the House of Commons receives a letter calling for the dissolution of Parliament in the middle of a session, but they're in the midst of a passionate debate about religion so some members hold Sir Finch in his seat while others lock the doors and still others are panicking. Meanwhile, Sir John Eliot delivers a passionate speech against the growing influence of popery at court, attacking the continued levying of tonnage and poundage and protesting Arminianism. When the king's sergeant arrives, no official vote has been taken but there are roars of approval as parliament disbands itself. Charles puts a lot people in jail for life until they are willing to beg for mercy, but Eliot never does, and he dies naturally in the Tower of London, likely of illness. This marks the beginning of the 11-year Personal Rule of Charles I, a period of economic prosperity for England.
Burton, Bastwick, Prynne
Laud prosecutes these three Puritan men for writing pamphlets criticizing him. They were convicted of seditious libel in 1637 and sentenced by Charles' Star Chamber to the pillory and then to have the tips of their ears cut off. This was an unusual punishment because they were gentlemen and not common criminals, and it made Puritans even more mad at Laud because he was conducting these punishments from behind the scenes.
The Scottish Presbyterians who signed The National Covenant in 1638 became known as the Covenanters. They were angry about English attempts to change the Scottish prayer book and about the increasing influence of popery; they abhorred popery because they were anti-Catholic. The National Covenant was endorsed by the Scottish Parliament in 1640. After a few months they start arguing for the removal of bishops from Scotland, wanting to return to a pure Presbyterian church order and even saying that they were willing to take up arms for their cause.
The Long Parliament
Charles dissolved the Short Parliament after three weeks because they refused to give him money and they took issue with tonnage and poundage and Laud and Arminianism. He got some money together himself and sent a very shabby, poorly equipped army to Scotland, but the Scots toppled them and then proceeded to seize the important city of Newcastle. So he calls the Long Parliament in November 1640 and theoretically he could have dissolved it but the Scots were literally in the north of England and he needed parliament.
The Trennial Act
The Triennial Act states that a Parliament has to be summoned every three years in future, whether the king wants to or not, and after they're summoned, they have to be permitted to sit for a minimum of 50 days.
Settlement around Dublin (The Pale-- also Wexford and Waterford)
The Medieval Pale is the area around Dublin, where most of the English/Scottish Irish lived - the rest of the country were inhabited by the Gaelic Irish. The term "beyond the pale" was thus used to mean "beyond civilization" to refer to the Gaelic Irish as savage. Most of the English and nearly all of the Scots in Ireland were Protestant, while almost all the Irish were Catholic. The English and Scottish settlers were about 20% of the population but managed to hold their own with arms. In October 1641, the Irish rebellion began, and 4% of the English and Scottish settlers in Ireland were killed in the first six months. Many Protestants were pushed into exile in England and Scotland.
The Solemn League and Covenant
One of the reasons the king loses to Parliament is that Parliament has the Scots on their side. The Scots ally with Parliament because they're worried that if the king wins, he'll go to Scotland with his army to reimpose bishops even after having signed a treaty with them agreeing to their demands. This had several elements: 1) Parliament could not make a separate peace with Charles. 2) Scots want a Presbyterian church in England and Parliament agrees to this.
Army General (1612-1671)
He was the general of the new model army. He was a presbyterian.
Despite being head of the NMA, his indecisiveness and absence at a lot of the Army Council meeting left a vacuum of power which allowed Cromwell to take over control (Cromwell was second-in-command).
Fairfax and Cromwell were polar opposites: Fairfax was worried about the consequences of the NMA taking over while Cromwell did not.
Fairfax lead the Grandees (which are senior officers in the NMA that opposed the Levellers and their radical proposes).
Fairfax was commissioner of Charles I's trial but doesn't show up. Fairfax is one of the few people who could have stopped Charles I's execution, but abstains.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
the younger son of Princess Elizabeth (Charles's younger sister) and Frederick V, Elector Palatine (see above) → Charles's nephew
excellent in cavalry- makes him a "master-Cavalier"- came to England in 1642 at the age of 25 to help Charles in the First Civil War, already having battle experience from the 30 Years' War; brought his poodle Boy with him, whom the Parliamentarians hated (thought he was a "witch dog" w/ subversive powers like ability to turn invisible, catch bullets in his mouth, etc. → put a price on his head → a Parliamentarian soldier kills Boy :(
significant because of his role in the Battle of Naseby (see below) because Rupert was a master cavalier and in this battle, pretty much only Cavalry mattered
Rupert's Royalist cavalry defeated Ireton's Parliamentarian cavalry BUT he left none in reserve to fight Cromwell's cavalry → Cromwell's Parliamentarian cavalry routed General Langdale's Royalist "Northern Horse" cavalry and emerged victorious in the battle that basically won the war for the Parliamentarians → shows Cromwell's ingenuity; Rupert's mistake of overcommitting his troops = important part of Royalists' loss
post-Naseby, Rupert advised Charles to seek treaty with Parliament (Charles wouldn't) and then he surrendered Bristol to Parliament in September → Charles withdrew his commission → Rupert left for Holland and returned to England post-restoration
Battle of Naseby
Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-1682)
Younger sister of Charles' sister
experience, brought with him a white poodle named Boy (unknown-1644)-- devil dog with magical powers
Decisive battle in 1645
victory for Parliament that essentially ended the First Civil War
Prince Rupert's cavalry vs. Ireton and Cromwell; ends in the Cavaliers' loss (See above^)
showcased Cromwell's mad skills
most definitive win for cromwell.
A political movement during the English Civil War
In "The Case of the Army Truly Stated" they made their case that:
All men above the age of 21 should have the right to vote (except former royalists). This was pretty radical at the time.
New parliament should be held every 2 years
Titles should be abolished (payment to church ministers to pay for their livelihood, building churches, etc.)
Levellers on the Army Council were radical and opted for a social revolution that the Grandees opposed
The demands of the Levellers illustrated the destabilizing effects of civil war; war gives hope to the lower class people that they can get more out of life.
The Case of the Army Truly Stated
pamphlet that was presented to Fairfax in which the Levellers demanded:
All men above the age of 21 should have the vote (except former royalists). This was pretty radical at the time.
New parliament should be held every 2 years
Tithes should be abolished (payment to church ministers to pay for their livelihood, building churches, etc.)
went beyond what Cromwell wanted (he didn't want to abolish tithes)
6 December 1648
Parliament members that should should no longer be able to enter-- after this it was called Rump Parliament
489 members originally, then there were 258 members
occurred during the Second Civil War on December 6, 1648
Cromwell sent Colonel Thomas Pride and Pride's troops to purge the House of Commons because Parliament was more hesitant to put Charles I on trial for high treason. Pride forcibly removed from Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the Grandees' decision to try Charles I.
231 members are no longer let in so Parliament is now called Rump Parliament
The Rump Parliament
existed after Pride purged Long Parliament in Dec. 1648 (see above).
Consisted of the 250 members that remained after Pride's Purge. Only ~80 chose to participate in the debate of Charles I's trial. The final vote to try Charles I was 46 in favor, 25 opposed.
Rump Parliament and Charles I's execution had the problem of legitimacy. RP is forced to come up with a new system but automatically lacked the "legitimacy of precedence". RP tries to pretend that they were speaking for the people and maintain the "fig leaf of legal legitimacy".
in 1649, RP (1) voted to make England a commonwealth and (2) voted to abolish House of Lords
both of these were unpopular
both acts together are known as the English Revolution because they signal a massive transfer of authority in England
many people are unhappy about these acts and see them as illegitimate
Cromwell dissolves RP in 1653 as a result of arguments between him and Parliament. RP is called back by the NMA after Cromwell is ejected from power. RP rules for 6 months but constantly argue/debate, so new elections were held for a Convention Parliament.
The 59 members of Parliament that decided to sign Charles I death warrant-- Oliver Cromwell and Thomas Pride signed
The 59 Lords who signed the death warrant of Charles I.
After Charles II's restoration, he wanted these people killed. 20 died before 1660, many (12) fled to different countries, 6 who stayed were tried and found guilty, after which they were hung, drawn & quartered. 14 were imprisoned for life and more were also imprisoned or hunted down and sentenced to death. Cromwell's body was exhumed and was hung, drawn, quartered, and tarred.
Richard Ingoldsby was pardoned, said he was forced to sign the warrant by Cromwell and others by violence. He said Cromwell took his hand and made him sign the warrant
The Inner Light
God gave everyone the inner light and that anyone could follow that light to heaven :)
Quakers believed in the inner light, which contradicted the idea of predestination
Puritan, but published increasingly radical pamphlets
farmer from south London who had been a Puritan but started publishing increasingly radical pamphlets in the 1640s
leader of the Diggers, one of several new religious groups including the Ranters and the Quakers that cropped up in the aftermath of Charles I's execution
April 1649: started an agrarian commune w/ ~2 dozen of his friends in St. George's Hill; later started another settlement in Surrey called Cobham Heath; attracted attention b/c 1) they established it on common land, not privately owned land → all locals were supposed to have the right to raise animals there, etc. and 2) they started to literally dig up land to plant crops (not allowed)
1649: GW wrote the True Levellers Standard Advanced and 15 leaders of the group signed it- claimed that the Levellers (see above) hadn't gone far enough and that they would go farther; called themselves the "True Levellers" (Diggers = a derogatory nickname given by someone else); aimed to level social distinctions by attacking private property and enacted the attack themselves by building huts, planting crops, etc.
BUT movement small/short- only had 90 people at its peak and attracted a lot of hostility, esp. from local landowners, so the New Model Army tore the settlement down in 1650 after only a year b/c the local courts deemed the group illegal
significant because it shows how a revolution can lead to new ways of thinking about fundamental ideas like private property and proves that Charles's execution was leading to some social upheaval
belief that there are no moral laws that God expects you to obey.
not a problem in Catholicism because people believed that individuals' work did play a part in getting to heaven.
even Luther was worried about antinomianism and wrote a pamphlet called "Against the Antinomians"
Ranters followed antinomianism; this led to people's fear of Ranters and their seemingly amoral behaviors and beliefs.
A Single Eye
a pamphlet written by Laurence Clarkson in 1650 that started the ranter movement
claimed that a sin isn't really a sin unless you think it's a sin b/c only your own moral code matters → arguing for a relative definition of sin and a relative moral code
people perceived this as an argument for antinomianism (tendency/philosophy that was "against the law") → people were already afraid that Charles's beheading would kick off more acts of rebellion → that's why the ranters were able to start such a moral panic (anxiety focused on one group seen to be transgressing social norms) even though there were only like 5 ranters
Parliament/Puritans also didn't like A Single Eye b/c they thought it gave Calvinism a bad name, since there were already concerns that Predestination could lead to antinomianism based on the logic there seems to be little point to obeying laws if you already know you're going to be saved (even Martin Luther said "sin boldly") → they pass the Blasphemy Act on 9 August, 1650 (see below) → Laurence Clarkson thrown in prison
significant because this pamphlet led to the ranter movement, which in turn started the moral panic in England (evidence in the anti-ranter pamphlets we read) and it resulted in the passage of the Blasphemy Act
The Blasphemy Act
Passed on August 9, 1650 as a result of Clarkson's A Single Eye (see above).
Basically a list of things people were not allowed to think are okay. If you do call them okay you go to jail.
Ultimately an act against antinomians.
Not a ton of people prosecuted under this act, though.
The Instrument of Government
1653, it transformed England from a Commonwealth (1649-1653) to a Protectorate.
Cromwell becomes Lord Protector. He does not become king because he didn't want to follow old ideas.
a very unpopular regime.
Oliver Cromwell's son as well as successor. Cromwell died in 1658 and chooses Richard as his successor on his deathbed (odd because it is a traditional choice which contradicted Cromwell's anti-monarchical tendencies).
Richard was pretty lame because he was not even an army officer or known for political ideas or anything.
People were not pleased and wanted Charles II as the king. Even some people in the NMA start thinking this too. NMA loses its resolve and ejects Cromwell from power after 6 months of his rule.
Mistress of Charles II of England
she was a mistress of king charles the second of england
Charles II knocks her up and has his first illegitimate child. The son eventually becomes the Duke of Monmouth in 1653. He is very well-liked, intelligent, brave, and PROTESTANT :) (his most important quality!)
Lucy died in 1658 (pre-Restoration) and Charles II marries Catherine of Braganza in 1662. So Lucy had died having had a son before Charles II marries Catherine.
Important because James II later became Catholic and was heir to the throne (revealed by the Test Act, see below). Most Protestants didn't like that a Catholic would take the throne and the only way James II wouldn't get the throne is if Charles II had a legitimate child but he refuses to divorce Catherine. This is where Lucy comes in- if Lucy and Charles II had secretly married in 1648, had the Duke of Monmouth, followed by Lucy's death and Charles II getting remarried to Catherine, THEN the Duke of Monmouth would be the heir!!!
many Protestants liked this idea (because wanted D.o.Monmouth more than James II)
Charles II did not want to lie about this and wants to be honorable
The Test Act
Law outlaws catholics from holding public office
exposes the future James II as Catholic because he resigns. people think oh no he is a catholic and get worried that England is going to become catholic. it helps create the exclusion crisis. Leads to formation of two political parties. when parliament tries to prevent him from becoming the king after Charles II. the whigs in parliament pass the bill that says no catholic can take the thrown.
A political party that emerged in opposition to the Whigs around 1680
was opposed to the exclusion of James II
basically all Catholics were Tories (which explains why they want James II)
Platform: anti-nonconformist, anti-toleration and anti-exclusion
the Tory party and the Whig party were the first political parties
Declaration for Liberty of Conscience
lift all the laws regarding religious intolerance. it's seen as against parliament. james the second did that. he was saying all these acts that parliament passed are null. not respecting parliament.
April 1687; any laws that penalize any type of religious nonconformity will be lifted (i.e. end of Test Act, attendance at Church of England services was not required)
some scholars believed that it was James II's way of trying to pretend that he was religiously tolerant. Other scholars believed that perhaps he empathized with religious minorities since he himself was one.
The Declaration upset Tories and Whigs:
Tories were upset because they liked to prosecute Quakers, but under the Declaration they can't do so anymore.
Whigs liked how the Declaration promoted toleration, but they did not like how James II bypassed Parliament to make it.
The Declaration was a source of a lot of controversy, especially surrounding James II and his religious tolerance.
Mary of Modena
an Italian Catholic who was James II's second wife after his Protestant first wife Anne Hyde died; she was 25 years younger than James II
Mary and James have a son, James Frances Edward, in 1688, and male-preference primogeniture dictated that he would be monarch after James II died → English people mad b/c they knew JFE would be raised Catholic (both parents were Catholic and they named the pope his godfather) and they're afraid of the ramifications of having a line of Catholic monarchs → start conspiracy theory:
called the "warming-pan theory": claim that Mary of Modena didn't actually give birth to JFE and they just brought him in on a warming-pan to fake that he was her biological son (she'd just been wearing a pillow under her dress for the whole pregnancy, etc.) → theory becomes very popular, even though 80 people had been in the room to see the birth
significant b/c both Mary and Anne (James's daughters from his first marriage) claim to believe the theory about Mary/JFE and latch on to it → gives Mary's husband WIlliam of Orange an excuse to invade England in order to defend his wife's claim to the throne against JFE, "The Old Pretender" → leads to the Glorious Revolution
The Act of Toleration
passed in 1689 by Convention Parliament
doesn't include everyone but does include Protestant nonconformists (excluded Catholics and any Protestant group that denied the Trinity and any non-Christians)
not as tolerant and kind as James II's Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, but forgiving for Independents, Presbyterians, Quakers, etc.
Whigs = happy; Tories = okay, because they see the importance of uniting against the Catholics
Catherine of Braganza
Portuguese and Catholic. There wasn't much unrest when Charles II married her. There was joy that the unrest was over. English people were getting to it.
portuguese, catholic, there was not a lot of unrest when charles II married her in 1662. there was a lot of joy that the unrest was over. english people were getting used to having a catholic queen.
Had a problem in her uterus and could not give birth to any children.
This lack of an heir leads to the ascension of James II and formation of two parties. Exclusion policy major point of argument between two parties.
Many protestants want Charles II to divorce Braganza and marry someone else who will produce him a legitimate heir, but Charles will not divorce the wife he loves
the one regicide that was pardoned
He was able to be pardoned because he supported the Restoration, had friends in power, and made the ridiculous claim that he didn't mean to sign the death warrant, but was forced to by Cromwell.
The Cavalier Parliament of England lasted from 8 May 1661 until 24 January 1679. It was the longest English Parliament, enduring for nearly 18 years of the quarter-century reign of Charles II of England.
The Cavalier Parliament of England lasted from 8 May 1661 until 24 January 1679. It was the longest English Parliament, enduring for nearly 18 years of the quarter-century reign of Charles II of England.
dominated by Royalists aka Cavaliers
wanted revenge and did so through laws of religious conformity
Act of Uniformity (1662)
all ministers in the Church of England must take an oath saying that everything in the Book of Common Prayer was consistent with the word of God
Conventicle Act (1664)
The Triennial Act
this mandated that every three years parliament would have to be summoned.
The Convenicle Act
Religious meeting of nonconformists were called "conventicles"
This act made it illegal to attend a religious service outside the Church of England if more than 5 people were present
Penalties were fines that increased with every penalty (3rd penalty was 100 pounds or transportation to America)
Important because it emphasized how powerful Parliament was
The Test Act
1673- the act banned catholics from serving in any public office. all holder s of public office had to make a declaration against transubstantiation.
the act lasted until 1828, when it was repealed by parliament
Readings( summary of each book and characters)
Movement began in 1653
-Threatened social order
-Went further than Luther
- They get rid of clergy entirely
- Allowed women to preach in their church
-Many moved to Pennsylvania when they were being persecuted
Name given to the group
Movement came and went
Most radical of all the groups
Anonymous authors, they are all the same date
The Trew Law
A justification for the Divine right monarchy. James thoughts on what the monarchy should be, how it should function in society.
The Stubbes Readings and The Anatomie of Abuses
These are puritan works that condemn sin and sinfulness. both writers are clear on which sims should be condemned. the wearing of makeup, drunkeness, football, bearbating, dancing, music, reading bad books. there was an obsession of sex and sexuality. anti fun and anti tradition past times. they are written to persuade. the intended audience will read this and think oh there is too much sin. we are better than that. It's a dialogue between a visiotr to england and someone who hasn' been to engalnd.
gifford- the counrie divinitie- between a puritan and a non puritan
Charles- the transcripts and documents.
Charles trying to justify why parliament cant try him. Charles trying to undermine parliament's authority. parliament trying to undermine Charles authority. leads to the common law period of english history. parliament wins. Charles was never going to be found not guilty. witness says you are being blamed for the deaths of the civil war. he is trying to save the ranks of the kings. he wants to inspire future royalists and play the martyr. he knows his days are numbered and he wants to die with dignity in a way that preserves the monarchy. he's not known for being a good public speaker, but he goes out there and kills it.
1650- The yellow press- The Anti-Ranter Pamphlets
a lot of talk about whether or not the ranters were actually existing or not. stubbes and gifford want to pursuade but the anti-ranter pamphlets condemn sin as well but they are out to demonize a specific group that likely didn't exist. it's not generalizing sin. it's these specific ungodly ranters who are worshiping the devil. they are a threat to england at large. they are a fundamental product of the instablity that england faces after the death of charles the first. it's a moral panic. this really has a moral panic, yellow press kind of look.
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english civil war and glorious revolution
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