43 terms

APES Chapter 4 Review

After reading this chapter you should be able to: - explain the forces that drive global circulation patterns and how those patterns determine weather and climate. - describe the major terrestrial biomes. - describe the major aquatic biomes.
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Terms in this set (...)

climate
The average weather that occurs in a giver region over a long period of time.
atmosphere
Gas layer that surrounds the Earth. Consists of five layers of gases. The layers closest to Earth's surface to farthest:
1) troposphere
2) stratosphere: contains the ozone layer which absorbs most of the Sun's UV radiation
3) mesosphere
4) thermosphere: blocks harmful X-rays and UV rays, thickest layer, northern lights or aurora borealis
5) exosphere
troposphere
The densest layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16 km (10 miles) and containing most of the atmosphere's nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor. The layer where weather occurs.
stratosphere
The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 km (10-31 miles) above the surface of Earth.
albedo
The percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface.
saturation point
The maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature.
adiabatic cooling
The cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands.
adiabatic heating
The heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volume.
latent heat release
The release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water.
Hadley cell
A convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S.
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
An area of Earth that receives the most intense sunlight; where the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells converge. The weather is warm and rainy.
polar cell
A convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60 degrees N and 60 degrees S and sinks at the poles, 90 degrees N and 90 degrees S.
Coriolis effect
The deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of Earth.
gyre
A large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The currents redistribute heat from the Equator to Northern latitudes.
upwelling
The upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents.
thermohaline circulation
An oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
The periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia.
rain shadow
A region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side.
biome
A geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water.
tundra
A cold and treeless biome with low-growing vegetation.
permafrost
An impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil.
boreal forest
A forest made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons.
temperate rainforest
A coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation.
temperate seasonal forest
A biome with warmer summers and colder winters than temperate rainforests and dominated by deciduous trees.
woodland/shrubland
A biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
temperate grassland/cold desert
A biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers.
tropical rainforest
A warm and wet biome found between 20 degrees N and 20 degrees S of the equator, with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation.
tropical seasonal forest/savannah
A biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons.
subtropical desert
A biome prevailing at approximately 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation.
littoral zone
The shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow.
limnetic zone
A zone of open water in lakes and ponds.
phytoplankton
Floating algae.
profundal zone
A region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes.
benthic zone
The muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean.
freshwater wetland
An aquatic biome that is submerged or saturated by water for at least part of each year, but shallow enough to support emergent vegetation.
salt marsh
A marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates.
mangrove swamp
A swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts, and contains salt-tolerant trees with roots submerged in water.
intertidal zone
The narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide.
coral reef
The most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline.
coral bleaching
A phenomenon in which algae inside coral die, causing the corals to turn white.
photic zone
The upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
aphotic zone
The layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.
chemosynthesis
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide.