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Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell

THIS IS ONLY VOCAB WORDS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! YOU ARE ON YOUR OWN FOR CHARTS AND STUFF!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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Compound Light Microscope (CLM)
A microscope that uses a series of lenses to see light passed through a sample
Electron Microscope (EM)
A microscope that uses magnets to aim a beam of electrons at a sample
Organelles
Specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions
Nucleus
A special organelle that contains the cell's DNA, and stores information the cell needs to perform protein synthesis
Plasma Membrane
A special boundary that surrounds the cell and controls what gets into & out of the cell
Unicellular Organisms
Organisms made of just one cell, such as bacteria
Selective Permeability
The ability to allow some substance to pass through, while keeping others out
Phospholipids
The molecules that make up the plasma membrane are a special lipids
Polar
with a charge
Non-polar
without charge
phospholipid bilayer
two layers of phospholipids are arranged tail-to-tail with the heads on the outside/ the head is hydrophilic and the tail is hydrophobic
Transport Proteins
proteins that create tunnels through which are polar or big to get the bilayer can enter and leave the cell
Diffusion
the movement of substances from an area where there is high concentration of the substance to an area where there is a lower concentration of the substance
dynamic equilibrium
the point at which there is an equal concentration of a substance, or on both sides of the membrane
Passive Transport
movement of substances through the plasma membrane without the use of energy energy by the cell
concentration gradient
following the natural "flow" or tendency for things to want to move from areas where they are highly concentrated , to areas where they are less concentrated
simple diffusion
typr of passive transport in which substances pass through the plasma membrane on their own
facilitated diffusion
type of passive transport in which substances use a transport protein to get through the plasma membrane
transport proteins
proteins embedded in the plasma membrane which create tunnels for certain substances to pass through the plasma membrane
osmosis
type of passive transport in which water molecules move through the plasma membrane
solution
liquid with other substances dissolved in it
solvent
the liquid part of a solution
solute
the substance dissolved in a solution
active transport
movement of substances through the plasma membrane with the use of energy by the cell
ATP
(Adenosine Triphosphate) the type of energy used by cells
ADP
(Adenosine DiPhosphate) when a bond is broken between the phosphate groups, energy is released and this is the reaction of ATP
Endocytosis
process by which the cell brings a substance in by surrounding it in a segment of the plasma membrane
Exocytosis
the process by which a cell releases a substance by enclosing it in a vesicle, and fusing the vesicle to the plasma membrane
protein synthesis
building proteins
cytoplasm
the semi-fluid environment inside of a cell
cytoskeleton
a network of fibers which create support for the cell, and anchor organisms in place inside of the cell
nuclear envelope
a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus
nucleolus
the site where ribosomes are made
ribosomes
the organelles that build proteins
endoplasmic reticulum
a folded system of membranes where proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are made
Rough ER
the area of the ER where ribosomes are attached
Smooth ER
the area of the ER where no ribosomes are attached
Golgi Apparatus
a flattened sack of membranes that modifies, sorts and packages the proteins made in the rough ER
Vesicles
sacs from the golgi apparatus
vacuole
an area used to store food, waste and other substances needed by the cell
Lysosomes
vesicles that contain digestive enzymes which break down food particles, waste, and worn-out organelles
centrioles
bundles of fiber that function during cellular division
mitochondria
organelles that make ATP energy for the cell by turning sugars into energy using the process of cellular respiration
chloroplasts
organelles that capture light energy(from the sun) and convert it to food for the plant(glucose) through the process of photosynthesis
Thylakoids & Chlorophyll
found in chloroplasts
cell wall
a thick rigid network of fibers that surrounds the plasma membrane and protects the cell
Cell Theory
1. All living organisms are made of one or more cells
2. Cells are the basic units of structure & organization of organisms
3. All cells come from other cells
Eukaryotic Cells
1. Include plant and animal cells 2. have organelles 3. have nucleus 4. have a plasma membrane
Prokaryotic Cells
1. include unicellular organisms 2. do not have a nucleus or any other organelle 3. have a plasma membrane 4. has DNA that floats freely
Types of Passive Transport
Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion(including transport proteins), and osmosis
types of osmosis
isotonic, hypotonic, and hypotonic
Isotonic
concentration of water inside & outside of the cell are the same
Hypotonic
concentration of water outside of the cell is Higher than the concentration of water inside of the cell
Hypertonic
concentration of water outside the cell is LOWER than the concentration of water inside the cell
Types of Active Transport
Protein pumps, endocytosis, and exocytosis