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Lesson 7 - Chapter 10
Terms in this set (86)
Who printed the first American colonial book, and what was it called?
Locksmith Stephen Daye set up a print shop, where him and his son printed the first colonial book "The Whole Book of Psalms"
What was the first novel reprinted and sold in colonial America?
Benjamin Franklin imported Samuel Richardson's "Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded"
Why did Richardson's books "Pamela" and "Clarissa" connect with young middle class women?
Richardson's novel's portrayed women in subordinate roles; however, they also depicted women triumphing over tragedy, so he is credited as one of the first popular writers to take the domestic life of women seriously
How did books change to meet the new demand for books?
- Machine-made paper replaced expensive handmade paper
- Cloth covers replaced expensive leather ones
- Paperback books used cheaper paper covers
What are dime novels?
Novels that sold for 5-10 cents
Introduced by Eratus and Beadle
What was the first dime novel?
Ann Stephens Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter
Why were dime novels sometimes called pulp fiction?
Due to the cheap machine-made pulp paper they were made with
What is linotype?
A machine that saved printing time by typing mechanically using a type-writer-style keyboard
What is offset lithography?
printed books from photographic plates rather than metal casts --> this helped reduce the costs of color and illustrations and accelerating book production
Divisions of books come from economic and structural categories developed by publishers and trade organizations. Who does this include?
Divisions of books come from economic and structural categories developed by publishers and trade organizations. This includes:
- AAP (Association of American Publishers)
- BISG (The Book Industry Study Group)
- ABA (American Booksellers Association)
What are tradebooks?
Hardbound and paperback books aimed at general readers and sold at commercial retail outlets
What are the different categories of trade books?
Adult trade, juvenile trade, and comics & graphic novels
What are adult trade books?
Hardbound/paperback fiction, current nonfiction and biographies, literary classics, books on hobbies, art, and travel, popular science, technology and computer publications, self-help books, and cookbooks
What are Juvenile trade books?
Juvenile picture book categories range from preschool picture books to young-adult or young-reader books
What is the first graphic novel?
Will Eisner's "A Contract with God"
What has more sales, comic books or graphic novels?
Graphic novels --> not always about superheroes
What are professional books?
Target various occupations and are not intended for the general consumer market
How are professional books sold?
Sold via mail order, the internet, or sales representatives
What is the most widely read textbook in US history? What level is this textbook?
The most widely read secular book in U.S. history is "The Eclectic Reader" by William McGuffey.
It is an elementary-level textbook.
What did this textbook teach children?
This book taught schoolchildren to spell and read simultaneously, and respect the nation's political and economic systems
When did the sales of college textbooks boom?
1950s when the GI bill allowed men returning from WWII to attend college
What kinds of textbooks are there?
Textbooks are divided into elementary through high school (el-hi), college texts, and vocational texts
Where are mass market paperbacks sold?
Sold in drugstores, supermarkets, airports, in addition to bookstores
What type of book is often the base of a blockbuster movie?
Mass market paperbacks
Do mass paperback books generate more or less revenue than trade books?
Mass market paperback books generate less revenue since they are lower priced (under $10)
Why are mass market paperbacks experiencing a declining sale in recent years?
Bookstore chains prefer to display and promote the more expensive trade paperback and hardbound books
When did popularity of paperbacks peak?
Popularity of paperbacks peaked with Robert de Graff's Pocket Books
These lowered the standard book price of 50-75 cents to 25 cents
How did these book prices drop?
To do so, de Graff cut bookstore discounts from 30% to 20%, the book distributor's share fell from 46% to 36% of the cover price, and author royalty rates went from 10% to 4%
What is the instant book?
A marketing strategy that involved publishing a topical book quickly after a major event occurred
Pocket books produced the first instant book. What was this book called?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: A Memorial 6 days after FDR's death
What have instant books been accused of?
Instant books enabled the industry to compete with newspapers and magazines. However, these books have been accused of shoddy writing, exploiting tragedies, and avoiding in-depth analysis and historical perspective
What is the best selling book of all time?
A religious book: The Bible
When did the sale of religious books increase?
After WWII when people were seeking peace and security
When did the sale of religious books decrease?
During the Civil Rights struggle, Vietnam War, Sexual revolution, and the Youth rebellion against authority.
What did religious book publishers do to improve these sales?
Extended their offerings to include serious secular titles on topics of war & peace, race, poverty, gender, and civic responsibility
After ______, there has been a slight decline of sales in the religious book category
What are reference books?
Dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, almanacs, and volumes related to particular professions or trades i.e. legal casebooks & medical manuals
What are the 2 most common reference books?
Dictionaries and encyclopedias
Who are encyclopedias related to?
Who wrote the oldest reference work, and what was it called?
Pliny the Elder (a Roman) wrote the oldest reference work: Historia Naturalis (it's about facts regarding animals, minerals, and plants)
Who produced the first multiple-volume set of encyclopedias?
What is the oldest English-language encyclopedia?
What are University press books?
- The smallest market in the book industry; nonprofit
- Publishes scholarly work for small groups of readers interested in intellectually specialized areas i.e. literary theory and criticism, history of art movements, contemporary philosophy, etc.
What do professors do in terms of book contracts?
Professors often try to secure book contracts from university presses to increase their chances for tenure: a lifetime teaching contract
What is the oldest and most prestigious University press book?
Harvard University Press
Are University press books pressured to produce commercial books?
No, they prefer books on specialized topics
How do University press books do in terms of their revenue?
Most university presses loose money and are supported by their university, even when they publish more commercially accessible titles due to a lack of marketing budgets
True or false: Some presses are trying to form alliances with commercial houses to help produce academic books that have a wider appeal
Who are the tow major comic-book producing companies? What was their signature contribution to American culture?
Marvel and DC
In 1950's, the popularity of crime and horror comics led to a moral panic. What code did this lead to?
This lead to the code of acceptable conduct for comic book publishers
Did this new code gain or lose adult readers?
Lost adult readers since the code confined comic book topics to those suitable for children.
Are comic books taken seriously as an art form?
In 1960's, a wave of underground comics occurred, featuring more explicit sexual, violent, and drug themes. Where were these sold?
These were sold through record stores, at alternative bookstores, and in comic-book specialty shops
In 1970s, direct sales became a new method of distributing comics. What did this involve?
Involved selling comics on a nonreturnable basis but with a higher discount than available to newsstand distributors
Who owns DC comics?
Who owns Marvel comics?
What are two major facets in the relationship between books, TV, and film?
How TV can help sell books and how books serve as ideas for TV and movies
What is one of the most influential forces promoting books on TV?
What are audiobooks?
Generally features actors or authors reading abridged versions of popular fiction and nonfiction trade books
What eBooks failed to gain mass appeal? What is the leading eReader?
The RCA eBook reader and the Sony reader
Why is preserving older books important?
Important since they used to be printed on acid-based paper, which gradually deteriorates
Acid-free paper did not begin until 1990's
What is one of the triumphs internet has concurred in terms of books?
Allows digital passage of banned books into nations where printed versions have been outlawed
What is a book challenge?
A formal complaint to have a book removed from a public or school library
What is the largest publishing conglomerate?
How many people does a small publishing house have?
A few to 20 people
How many people does a large publishing house have?
A hundred of people that are separated into divisions
Who do publishing houses contract to print their books?
Unlike daily newspapers but similar to magazines, most publishing houses contract independent printers
What is an acquisition editor?
Most publishers employ acquisition editors: they seek out and sign authors to contracts; also handle subsidiary rights for an author (selling the rights to a book for use in other media i.e. paperback book or screenplay)
Sometimes writers receive advance money. What is that?
An early payment that is subtracted from royalties earned from book sales (typically 5-15% of the net price of the book)
Once the contract is signed, who does the acquisition editor turn the book to?
The developmental editor: provides the author with feedback, makes suggestions for improvements, and obtains advice from knowledgeable members of the academic community (if its educational publishing)
- may work with photo researchers
What do copy editors do?
Attend to specific problems in writing or length
What do production and design managers do?
Work on the look of the book, making decisions about type style, paper, cover design, and layout
What are dumps?
To help create a best-seller, trade houses often distribute large illustrated cardboard bins called "dumps" to thousands of stores to display a book in bulk quantity
What are the 2 outlets for selling books?
Bookstores and book clubs/mail order
What are the two major chains that dominate bookstores?
Barnes & Nobles, Borders-Waldenbooks
The development of book superstores in the 1980s reinvigorated the business. What was the idea behind this?
The idea was to adapt the large retail store concept to the book trade
Who created the number 1 online bookstore?
Jeff Bezos, Amazon
The American Booksellers Association also launched ______.com to help independent bookstores create an online presence
How do book clubs work?
Entice readers with offers such as 5 books for $1, then require regular purchases from their list of recommended titles.
Also markets specialized titles directly to readers
What did mail order books do for rural areas?
Brought books to rural areas
Who uses mail-order book selling the most?
Trade, professional, and university press publishers
Mail-order bookselling was pioneered by ________ publishers.
Magazine. They created special books, including Time-Life Books that focused on science, nature, and cooking
Who used millions to build libraries all over the world?
Do people read more or less nowadays?
True or false: People who read regularly were more active in civic and cultural life and more likely to volunteer and do charity work
Are reading habits more evident among the young or among the older people?
Among the young
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