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maxilla and palatine bones

two bones that make up the hard palate

function of the respiratory mucosae

secrete a quart of mucus each day, traps dust, bacteria, and other debris, secretes natural antibioties, adds humidity to the air, cilia move so that contaminated mucus is swallowed and digested

3 regions of the pharynx

nasopharynx, oropharaynx, laryngopharynx


posterior to the nasal cavity

inferior to the sphenoid



superior to the soft palate

torus tubarius is found here


pharyngeal tonsil is found here


tubal tonsil is found here


posterior to the oral cavity


palatine and lingual tonsils are found here



connected to the mouth via an opening called the fauces


lining is more protective since both food and air pass through

inferior to the oropharynx



extends down to where respiratory and digestive parts of the throat split

connects to the esophagus where food passes; more posterior



air goes anteriorly into the larynx

function of the larynx

provides an airway to the trachea

provides swithching mechanism depending if food or air is in the throat(epiglottis)

function of the larynx

contains the vocal cords(folds)

function of the larynx

thyroid cartilage(most anterior) largest

makes up the larynx

adams apple

the laryngeal prominence in men

cricoid cartilage

just inferior to the thyroid cartilage

arytenoid cartilage (2)

lateral, above cricoid, anchors the vocal folds

cuneiform cartilage (2)

wedge shaped, anterior and superior to arytenoid cartilage

corniculate cartilage (2)

small horns, between arytenoid and cuneiform cartilages


extends from the tongue to the thyroid cartilage

9 cartilages that make up the larynx

thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid(2), cuneiform (2), corniculate (2), epiglottis

functions of the epiglottis

when breathing, epiglottis is upright- when we swallow, epiglottis flips back to cover the opening to the laryngeal inlet, which is the opening to the trachea

structure involved in sound production

vocal folds vibrate which produces sound as air comes up from the lungs


opening between the two vocal folds (seen in superior view)

vestibular folds

superior to the vocal folds; plays no part in vocalization


opening between the true and false cords (seen in sagittal view)

false vocal cords

vestibular folds

true vocal cords

vocal folds

arytenoid cartilages

control the tension of the vocal cords and the size of the glottis

wide open glottis

makes deep tones

narrow glottis

makes high tones

tense vocal cords

produce high tones

loose vocal cords

produce low tones

men's vocal cords

thicker and longer, vibrate more slowly, causes their voice to be lower


depends on the force of air--more force= stronger vibration= louder sound

what controls the quality of voice

resonance of the pharynx, nasal cavity, and sinuses

formation of words

action of the tongue, teeth, soft palate, and lips

3 layers of the trachea

mucosa, submucosa, adventitia


innermost layer (closest to lumen) of the trachea


middle layer of the trachea


outermost layer of the trachea


contains cells (pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium)


made up of connective tissue


made up of connective tissue reinforced by c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage


produces mucus


allows for flexibility, keeps the trachea open

rings are open posteriorly and ends are connected by the trachealis muscle


secretes mucus and cilia to move particles to the throat sothey can be coughed up and expelled or swallowed



right behind the trachea--it can expand when we swallow since the trachea is flexible


last ring is expanded and a piece of cartilage projects into the lumen

marks the end of the trachea



last line of defense, initiate a strong cough reflex

conducting portion of the bronchial tree

right and left primary bronchi are formed when the trachea bifurcates(splits)

right bronchus is shorter and wider

conducting portion of the bronchial tree

each primary bronchus splits into secondary bronchi

conducting portion of the bronchial tree

each secondary bronchus supplies on lobe of the lungs

conducting portion of the bronchial tree

each secondary bronchus branches into tertiary bronchi

conducting portion of the bronchial tree

tertiary bronchi

secondary branches


under 1mm

terminal bronchioles

less than .5 mm

terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory bronchioles

respiratory portion

alveolar ducts are formed when respiratory branches branch

respiratory portion

alveolar ducts

lead to alveolar sacs

sacs (look like grapes)

individual alveoli

gas exchange takes place


300 million


surface features of the lungs

root, costal surface, apex, base, hilus,cardiac notch, aortic impression,


connected to the mediastinum by the vessels and bronchi

costal surface of the lung

anterior, posterior, and lateral surfaces close to te ribs

apex surface of the lung

superior tip

base of the lung

concave inferior surface that sits on the diaphram

hilus of the lung

point on the medial surface where blood vessels enter and leave and bronchi enter

cardiac notch of the lung

depression on the left lung where the heart sits

aortic impression of the lung

depression on the left lung where the aorta runs and arches

left lung

has two lobes, (superior and inferior)

divided by the oblique fissure

left lung

right lung

has 3 lobes (superior, middle, and inferior)

horizontial fissure

divides the superior and middle portions of the right lung

oblique fissure

divides the middle and the inferior lobes of the right lung


individual parts of each lobe separated by connective tissue

type I cells of the respiratory membrane

epithethial cell

extremely thin walled cells of the alveoli

type I cell

called the air-blood barrier

type I cell

type I cell

o2 diffuses into te capillary; co2 diffuses into te alveoli

septal cells

type II cells

type II cells

secrete fluid that coats the surface of the alveoli


fluid secreted by type II cells

reduces surface tension

type II cells

type II cells

keep the alveoli from collapsing


inflammation of the pleurae

causes stabbing pain during each breath


pleural effusion

accumulation of fluid in the cavity


presence of air in the intrapleural space

hole is closed and air drawn out with chest tubes which reinflates the lung


4 process of respiration

pulmonary, external, transport , internal

pulmonary respiration

movement of air in and out of the lungs

ventilation or breathing

movement of air in and out of the lungs

provides air to the alveoli

pulmonary respiration

pulmonary respiration

prevents buildup of carbon dioxide and ensure supply of oxygen

external respiration

gas exchange between the blood and the lungs

internal respiration

exchange of gas between the blood and cells

transport of respiratory gases

movement of o2 and co2 from the lungs and the cells of the body

done by the cardiovascular system

transport of respiratory gases

boyle's law

as pressure goes up, volume goes down, as pressure goes down, volume goes up

air flow

from high pressure to an area of low pressure


how easily the lungs expand and contract

2 factors of complinace

elasticity, and surface tension


how easily the lung tissue stretches

surface tension

surfactant in fluid reduces surface tension

pulls walls of alveoli inward

surface tension

enables alveoli to expand more easily

reduction of surface tension

reduced compliance

result in scar tissue

tb and emphysema

result in scar tissue

excess fluid

pulmonary edema

deficiency in surfactant

premature birth

reduction in lung expansion



the thoracic cavity expands, pressure decreases and air comes in

quiet inspiration

diaphragm contracts and moves inferiorly, increases height of thoracic cavity

external intercostal muscles contract-lifts the ribcage and pulls the sternum forward' increases depth and width of thoracic cavity

quiet inspiration

forced inspiration

during excerise; other muscles act to expand the thoracic cavity more,increasing lung capacity


quiet expiration, and forced expiration

quiet expiration

muscles relax and lungs recoil

reduced volume increases pressure, forcing air out

quiet expiration

forced expiration

muscles of the abdominal wall and back contract

increases pressure

forced expiration

depresses ribcage

forced expiration

alveolar ventilation

measures how much air actually reaches the alveoli--about 70%

anatomic dead

some air remains in the passage ways of the alveoli

respiratory minute volume

amount of air moved into and out of the respiratory tract each minute

influenced by repiratory rate and tidal volume

alveolar ventilation


amount of air actually moved during specific activities


amount of air that the lungs can hold

composition of air

79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, less than 0.5% water and 0.04% carbon dioxide

daltons law

each gas in the air contributes to pressure

partial pressure

pressure of individual gases in the air

4 factors affect gas exchange between blood and alveoli

differences in partial pressures, distance across respiratory membrane, gases are soluble in lipids, surface area

carries 98.5% of oxygen


4 types of hypoxia

anemic, ischemic, histotoxic,hypoxemic


too little oxygen delivered to the body

anemic hypoxia

too few rbc's or inadequate or abnormal hemoglobin

ischemic hypoxia

circulation is blocked

chf, thrombosis, embolism

ischemic hypoxia

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