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181 terms

biology

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maxilla and palatine bones
two bones that make up the hard palate
function of the respiratory mucosae
secrete a quart of mucus each day, traps dust, bacteria, and other debris, secretes natural antibioties, adds humidity to the air, cilia move so that contaminated mucus is swallowed and digested
3 regions of the pharynx
nasopharynx, oropharaynx, laryngopharynx
nasopharynx
posterior to the nasal cavity
inferior to the sphenoid
nasopharynx
nasopharynx
superior to the soft palate
torus tubarius is found here
nasopharynx
pharyngeal tonsil is found here
nasopharynx
tubal tonsil is found here
nasopharynx
posterior to the oral cavity
oropharynx
palatine and lingual tonsils are found here
oropharynx
oropharynx
connected to the mouth via an opening called the fauces
oropharynx
lining is more protective since both food and air pass through
inferior to the oropharynx
laryngopharynx
laryngopharynx
extends down to where respiratory and digestive parts of the throat split
connects to the esophagus where food passes; more posterior
laryngopharynx
laryngopharynx
air goes anteriorly into the larynx
function of the larynx
provides an airway to the trachea
provides swithching mechanism depending if food or air is in the throat(epiglottis)
function of the larynx
contains the vocal cords(folds)
function of the larynx
thyroid cartilage(most anterior) largest
makes up the larynx
adams apple
the laryngeal prominence in men
cricoid cartilage
just inferior to the thyroid cartilage
arytenoid cartilage (2)
lateral, above cricoid, anchors the vocal folds
cuneiform cartilage (2)
wedge shaped, anterior and superior to arytenoid cartilage
corniculate cartilage (2)
small horns, between arytenoid and cuneiform cartilages
epiglotis
extends from the tongue to the thyroid cartilage
9 cartilages that make up the larynx
thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid(2), cuneiform (2), corniculate (2), epiglottis
functions of the epiglottis
when breathing, epiglottis is upright- when we swallow, epiglottis flips back to cover the opening to the laryngeal inlet, which is the opening to the trachea
structure involved in sound production
vocal folds vibrate which produces sound as air comes up from the lungs
glottis
opening between the two vocal folds (seen in superior view)
vestibular folds
superior to the vocal folds; plays no part in vocalization
ventricle
opening between the true and false cords (seen in sagittal view)
false vocal cords
vestibular folds
true vocal cords
vocal folds
arytenoid cartilages
control the tension of the vocal cords and the size of the glottis
wide open glottis
makes deep tones
narrow glottis
makes high tones
tense vocal cords
produce high tones
loose vocal cords
produce low tones
men's vocal cords
thicker and longer, vibrate more slowly, causes their voice to be lower
loudness
depends on the force of air--more force= stronger vibration= louder sound
what controls the quality of voice
resonance of the pharynx, nasal cavity, and sinuses
formation of words
action of the tongue, teeth, soft palate, and lips
3 layers of the trachea
mucosa, submucosa, adventitia
mucosa
innermost layer (closest to lumen) of the trachea
submucosa
middle layer of the trachea
adventitia
outermost layer of the trachea
mucosa
contains cells (pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium)
submucosa
made up of connective tissue
adventitia
made up of connective tissue reinforced by c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
submucosa
produces mucus
adventitia
allows for flexibility, keeps the trachea open
rings are open posteriorly and ends are connected by the trachealis muscle
adventitia
secretes mucus and cilia to move particles to the throat sothey can be coughed up and expelled or swallowed
mucosa
esophagus
right behind the trachea--it can expand when we swallow since the trachea is flexible
carina
last ring is expanded and a piece of cartilage projects into the lumen
marks the end of the trachea
carina
carina
last line of defense, initiate a strong cough reflex
conducting portion of the bronchial tree
right and left primary bronchi are formed when the trachea bifurcates(splits)
right bronchus is shorter and wider
conducting portion of the bronchial tree
each primary bronchus splits into secondary bronchi
conducting portion of the bronchial tree
each secondary bronchus supplies on lobe of the lungs
conducting portion of the bronchial tree
each secondary bronchus branches into tertiary bronchi
conducting portion of the bronchial tree
tertiary bronchi
secondary branches
bronchiole
under 1mm
terminal bronchioles
less than .5 mm
terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory bronchioles
respiratory portion
alveolar ducts are formed when respiratory branches branch
respiratory portion
alveolar ducts
lead to alveolar sacs
sacs (look like grapes)
individual alveoli
gas exchange takes place
alveoli
300 million
alveoli
surface features of the lungs
root, costal surface, apex, base, hilus,cardiac notch, aortic impression,
root
connected to the mediastinum by the vessels and bronchi
costal surface of the lung
anterior, posterior, and lateral surfaces close to te ribs
apex surface of the lung
superior tip
base of the lung
concave inferior surface that sits on the diaphram
hilus of the lung
point on the medial surface where blood vessels enter and leave and bronchi enter
cardiac notch of the lung
depression on the left lung where the heart sits
aortic impression of the lung
depression on the left lung where the aorta runs and arches
left lung
has two lobes, (superior and inferior)
divided by the oblique fissure
left lung
right lung
has 3 lobes (superior, middle, and inferior)
horizontial fissure
divides the superior and middle portions of the right lung
oblique fissure
divides the middle and the inferior lobes of the right lung
lobules
individual parts of each lobe separated by connective tissue
type I cells of the respiratory membrane
epithethial cell
extremely thin walled cells of the alveoli
type I cell
called the air-blood barrier
type I cell
type I cell
o2 diffuses into te capillary; co2 diffuses into te alveoli
septal cells
type II cells
type II cells
secrete fluid that coats the surface of the alveoli
surfactant
fluid secreted by type II cells
reduces surface tension
type II cells
type II cells
keep the alveoli from collapsing
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleurae
causes stabbing pain during each breath
pleurisy
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid in the cavity
pneumothorax
presence of air in the intrapleural space
hole is closed and air drawn out with chest tubes which reinflates the lung
pneumothorax
4 process of respiration
pulmonary, external, transport , internal
pulmonary respiration
movement of air in and out of the lungs
ventilation or breathing
movement of air in and out of the lungs
provides air to the alveoli
pulmonary respiration
pulmonary respiration
prevents buildup of carbon dioxide and ensure supply of oxygen
external respiration
gas exchange between the blood and the lungs
internal respiration
exchange of gas between the blood and cells
transport of respiratory gases
movement of o2 and co2 from the lungs and the cells of the body
done by the cardiovascular system
transport of respiratory gases
boyle's law
as pressure goes up, volume goes down, as pressure goes down, volume goes up
air flow
from high pressure to an area of low pressure
compliance
how easily the lungs expand and contract
2 factors of complinace
elasticity, and surface tension
elasticity
how easily the lung tissue stretches
surface tension
surfactant in fluid reduces surface tension
pulls walls of alveoli inward
surface tension
enables alveoli to expand more easily
reduction of surface tension
reduced compliance
result in scar tissue
tb and emphysema
result in scar tissue
excess fluid
pulmonary edema
deficiency in surfactant
premature birth
reduction in lung expansion
paralysis
inspiration
the thoracic cavity expands, pressure decreases and air comes in
quiet inspiration
diaphragm contracts and moves inferiorly, increases height of thoracic cavity
external intercostal muscles contract-lifts the ribcage and pulls the sternum forward' increases depth and width of thoracic cavity
quiet inspiration
forced inspiration
during excerise; other muscles act to expand the thoracic cavity more,increasing lung capacity
expiration
quiet expiration, and forced expiration
quiet expiration
muscles relax and lungs recoil
reduced volume increases pressure, forcing air out
quiet expiration
forced expiration
muscles of the abdominal wall and back contract
increases pressure
forced expiration
depresses ribcage
forced expiration
alveolar ventilation
measures how much air actually reaches the alveoli--about 70%
anatomic dead
some air remains in the passage ways of the alveoli
respiratory minute volume
amount of air moved into and out of the respiratory tract each minute
influenced by repiratory rate and tidal volume
alveolar ventilation
volumes
amount of air actually moved during specific activities
capacities
amount of air that the lungs can hold
composition of air
79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, less than 0.5% water and 0.04% carbon dioxide
daltons law
each gas in the air contributes to pressure
partial pressure
pressure of individual gases in the air
4 factors affect gas exchange between blood and alveoli
differences in partial pressures, distance across respiratory membrane, gases are soluble in lipids, surface area
carries 98.5% of oxygen
hemoglobin
4 types of hypoxia
anemic, ischemic, histotoxic,hypoxemic
hypoxia
too little oxygen delivered to the body
anemic hypoxia
too few rbc's or inadequate or abnormal hemoglobin
ischemic hypoxia
circulation is blocked
chf, thrombosis, embolism
ischemic hypoxia
histotoxic hypoxia
cells can't use oxygen
due to poisons like cyanide
histotoxic hypoxia
hypoxemic hypoxia
reduced oxygen
co poisoning--hemoglobin likes co more than oxygen, so co takes up the space
hypoxemic hypoxia
carbon dioxide
produced by metabolism in body tissues
3 ways that carbon dioxide travels
as carbonic acid, bound to hemoglobin, dissolved in plasma
formed from a reaction between carbon dioxide and water
carbonic acid
pneumotaxic center
shortens inspiration to prevent overfilling of lungs
apneustic center
prolongs inspiration
medulla
controls rhythum
controls inspiration
medulla
pons
influences the medulla
smothes transition between inspiration and expiration
pons
rise in body temp increses respiratory rate
hypothalamus
hypothalamus
gasping when touching something clammy
activated by the limbic system in response to emotion
hypothalamus
cortical control
automatic dontrols kick in when carbon dioxide levels get too high
vagus nerve
carries inhibitory information for the inflation reflex
chemoreceptors for oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide are located where?
medulla and the great vessels of the neck
inflammation of the airways
result of asthma
spasms of the bronchioles
result of asthma
passed on through the air from the cough of an infected person
tb
caused by a bacteria--mycobacterium tuberculosis
tb
tb
usually confined to the lungs, can affect the skeleton, affects the vertebral column, can also move into muscles of the pelvis and thigh
lung cancer
survival rate is 5-year --7%
metastasizes rapidly, very aggressive
lung cancer
sids
crib death
infants sleeping on their stomachs
sids
inadequate development of premature babies
sids
sids
exposure to cocaine, heroin, or methadone
infants that have had a life threatening event
sids
sids
second or succeeding child of a teenage mother