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A job is defined as:

specific work and task activities

While there are differences in the meaning of work among countries, similarities appear to exist in:

two common work dimensions: work content and job context

The process of subdividing and departmentalizing an organization is _____; whereas, _____ is the process of linking jobs and departments into a cohesive whole.

differentiation, integration

Contrary to the famous statement made by Harold Beneen, former Chairman of ITT, "If I had enough arms and legs and time, I'd do it all myself," all organizations must divide work. This quote reflects the understanding that jobs result from:


The process of connecting jobs and departments into a coordinated, cohesive whole is known as:


The standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers defines:

work simplification

Job rotation and cross training are variations of:

job enlargement

The job design method aimed at increasing the motivational factors in a job is called:

job enrichment

The Job Characteristics Model is a/an:

person-job fit approach to job design and employee job placement

The harnessing of organizational members to their work roles is known as:


Which of the following is NOT a basic premise of the social information

other people's reaction to our job-related behaviors provide us with important cognitive cues as to determine whether we fit the overall culture

Ergonomics is used in the _____ approach to job designs.

biological, perceptual/motor, mechanistic, motivational

The interdisciplinary approach to job design emphasizing the person's interaction with physical aspects of the work environment and concern with physical exertion is the:

biological approach

An analysis of medical claims at Chaparral Steel Co. identified lower back problems as the most common problem experienced by steelworkers and managers alike. The interdisciplinary approach most appropriate for this problem would be:


Lower job satisfaction, motivation, and higher absenteeism will be negative outcomes that should be anticipated with which one of the following interdisciplinary approaches to job design?

motivational approach

All of the following are important components or approaches to the interdisciplinary approach to job design except:

social aspects of the work environment

A negative outcome of the mechanistic approach to job design is:

higher absenteeism

If you were to redesign jobs to increase the health and well-being of your workforce, similar to Scandinavian concerns, which of the following set of job characteristics would be the most beneficial?

reduce worker uncertainty, increase worker control, and manage conflict

The J.A. Counter & Associates firm has implemented a ROWEing work environment which is a reflection of:


A mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and services is called:

a virtual office

An organizational position is defined as:

a job in relation to other parts of the organization

Job enlargement was developed to overcome the problem of:

boredom associated with scientific management's approach to jobs

According to Frederick Taylor, the role of the worker is to:

execute the task

Scientific management includes all of the following elements except:

the integration of management and work such that workers had to exercise self-management

A shortcoming of work simplification is that:

it undervalues the human capacity for thought and creativity

Mass production jobs:

require minimal or surface mental attention

Job enrichment is based on:

Herzberg's two-factor motivation theory

The JDS refers to:

the survey instrument used to measure the elements in the Job Characteristics Model

The anthropocentric job design approach places:

human considerations at the center of job design decision

Organizational design is a process of specifying structural features of an organization. This process begins with:

the organizations goals

An organization chart shows:

formal lines of authority and supervisor-employee reporting relationships

The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its goals is:

organizational design

The process of breaking organizational goals into tasks and dividing work is:


The degree of differentiation most affected by employee's specialized knowledge, education, or training is:

horizontal differentiation

The thousands of State Farm Insurance Company agents' offices scattered throughout the United States are an example of:

spatial differentiation

Flat organization structures are characterized by:

high ratios of employees to supervisors

Lawrence and Lorsch suggest that an organization's complexity should mirror:

the complexity of the environment

The process of coordinating the different parts on an organization is:


The strongest method of horizontal integration is through:


In general, the flatter an organization the more necessary are:

integration mechanisms

A highly bureaucratized organization, such as the Social Security Administration, exhibits all of the following characteristics except:

loose controls

The extent to which work activities are defined and routinely performed the same way is known as:


A tall hierarchy of authority is usually associated with:


The particular grouping of activities performed by an individual or the division of labor refers to:


The faculty of a university comprises which of Mintzberg's fundamental elements of the organization?

operating core

When examining the relationship between size and basic design dimensions, small organizations have more _____ than large organizations?


For an organization to take advantage of its larger size into the 21st century, it must become:

centerless with a global core

Anything outside the boundaries of an organization is considered:

the environment

An organization with high task variability and unanalyzable problems should:

have an organic approach to structuring

An example of the subjective element of a career is:

your perception of your potential in a chosen occupation

The pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person's life is known as:

a career

Discrete exchange means:

explicit exchange of specified rewards in return for task performance

Occupational excellence means:

continually honing skills that can be marketed across organizations

Which of the following is an incorrect match of Holland's personality types and occupations?

realistic, pro baseball player

An assumption that drives Holland's theory is that people choose occupations:

based on matches with their own personality

A way of avoiding inherent conflicts between the individual and organization regarding job choice is:

realistic job preview

Almost 40% of new managers fail within the first 18 months on the job because of:

lack of human skills

A person's most significant career achievements are likely to occur in the _____ career stage.


According to Levinson's life stages and career stages, middle adulthood is best associated with:

the advancement/maintenance stage

An implicit agreement between an individual and an organization that specifies what each is expected to give and receive in the relationship is known as:

a psychological contract

The change and acquisition stage of organizational socialization occurs during the _____ career stage.


Which type of support in psychological contracts provides empathy, esteem, caring, or love?


Individuals reassess their goals and feel the need to make changes in their career dreams during which stage of the career stage model?


Sequences of job experiences along which employees move during their career is known as:

career paths

An approach to building competencies by moving laterally through different departments or different projects is:

career lattice

All of the following are functions provided by a mentor except:

formal training

The most difficult phase of a mentoring relationship is:


A relationship where both people have important career roles is called:

a dual-career partnership

The most common work-home conflict develops because of:

family member illness

Flextime, compressed workweeks, work-at-home arrangements, part-time hours, job sharing, and leave options are all considered:

alternative work arrangements necessary to manage work-home conflicts

A relatively new source of work-home conflict is:

need for eldercare

Sustaining performance and becoming a mentor are two issues individuals need to address during:

the maintenance stage

Self-perceived talents, motives, and values that guide an individual's career decisions are called:

career anchors

Someone with a security/stability career anchor would prefer work as a/an:

tenured college professor

Which of the following is NOT a term to describe the organizations that will succeed in meeting the competitive challenges that businesses face?


While downsizing can increase shareholder value by better aligning costs and revenues, the effective organizations are the ones that excel at:

reengineering and downsizing

All of the following are part of globalizing an organization except:

focusing on behavior rather than attitudes

Technological changes bring about profound change because they are not just changes in the way work is performed, but also result in:

changes in work relationships and organizational structures

Most changes that encourage employees to become more ethical are targeted at:

operations and the materials that may have environmental consequences

An example of an internal force for change is:

an increased grievance rate

When an organization moves to a radically different, and sometimes unknown, future state, they have made what type of change?


When the organization changes its mission, culture, culture, goals, strategy, and structure it has:

made a transformational change

When the organization makes a large-scale change such as moving to a new structure, the change would be considered:


A price adjustment in gasoline by an oil company in response to an excise tax increase is a/an _____ change.


A person who acts as the initiator and assumes responsibility for change management is called a/an:

change agent

The most massive scope of change is known as:


Outside change agents may be preferred by employees because they are viewed as:


Change leaders within organizations tend to be all of the following except:

balanced in both technical and interpersonal skills

In a situation of significant organizational change, uncertainty or _____ may be prevalent.

fear of the unknown

Fear of loss and the unknown are:

reasons why individuals resist change

All of the following are key strategies for managing resistance to change except:


Disidentified employees need to see that:

work itself and emotion are separable

The managerial intervention most appropriate for the disorientation reaction to change is:

explanation and planning

Disengagement involves:

breaking the psychological contract

In Lewin's force field analysis technique, the status quo can be viewed as a/an:

state of equilibrium

Lewin's model proposes that successful change efforts require:

the three-stage process must be completed

The establishment of new attitudes, values, and behaviors as the new status quo is consistent with what stage in Lewin's change model?


An appropriate organization development technique when the organization is large and the objective is to reach as many employees as possible is:

survey feedback

A good organization development effort that can relieve role ambiguity and conflict is:

management by objectives

When people with an external locus of control perform well,

They are likely to attribute their performance to luck or the fact that the task was easy

A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting form the appraisal of one's job or job experiences reflects

Job satisfaction

Maslow's hierarchy of needs model begins with ______ needs and ends with ________ needs.

Physiological; self-actualization

According to Tuckman's model' dependence on guidance and direction is the defining characteristic in what stage of group development?


Transformational leaders:

Inspire and stimulate followers to high performance levels

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