34 terms

Chemistry

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Surface Tension
inward force or pull which tends to minimize the surface area of any liquid
surfactant
when soap molecules interfere with the hydrogen bonding making Surface Tension lower
aqueous solutions
water samples containing dissolved substances
solvent
the dissolving medium
solute
the dissolved particles
solvation
occurs when a solute is dissolved
electrolytes
compounds that conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or the molten state
nonelectrolytes
compounds that do not conduct an electric current
weak electrolyte
only a fraction of the solute exists as ions
strong electrolyte
almost all of the solute exists as ions
suspensions
mixtures from which some of the particles will settle slowly upon standing
colloids
mixtures containing particles that are intermediate in size between those of suspensions and the solutions
tyndall effect
the scattering of visible light in all directions in colloids
brownian motion
chaotic movement of collodial particles
emulsions
collodial dispersion of liquids in liquids
water of hydration
the water in a crystal
effloresce
if a hydrate has a vapor pressure higher than water vapor in air, the hydrate will do this by losing the water of hydration
hygroscopic
salts and other compounds that remove moisture from air
desiccants
hygroscopic substances used as drying agents purposfully
deliquescent
compounds that remove sufficient water from the air to dissolve completely and form solutions
saturated solution
contains the maximum amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature
solubility
the amount of substance that dissolves in a given quantity of a solvent at a given temperature to produce a saturated solution
unsaturated
a solution that contains less solute that a saturated solution
miscible
when two liquids dissolve into each other
immiscible
liquids that are insoluble in one another
supersatured solution
a solution which contains more solute that it can theoritcally hold at a given temperature
concentration
measure of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent
dilute solution
has only a small amt. of solute
concentrated solution
large amt. of solute
colligative properties
depend on # particles dissolved in a mass of solvent
boiling point elevation
diff in temp between boiling point of solution and pure substance boiling point
freezing point depression
difference in temperature between FP of solution and pure substance FP
molal Bp elevation constant
= to delta in BP for a 1 molal solution of a nonvolatile molecular state
freezing point depression constant
= to delta in FP for a 1 molal solution of a nonvolatile molecular state