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250 terms

Final Review

STUDY
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If a researcher watches one week old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using:
Scientific observation
Most developmental psychologists are:
eclectic, because each theory of human development has its limitations.
Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?
The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture , in turn, affects genes.
what does current research tell us about the resolution of the nature-nurture controversy?
Nature is proving to be dominant over nurture in the understanding of human behavior.
The process by which a skilled person helps a novice learn by engaging the learner in joint activities is referred to as:
guided participation
Which of the following theories holds that genes and environmental influences work hand in hand to eventually allow or prevent developmental behaviors?
epigenetic
A researcher has just completed a study of Princess Diana, including her family background, life history, and expressed opinions. This is an example of:
a case study
A cognitive theory focuses on:
thoughts
In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ____ group.
experimental
WHich of the following theories holds that a person's behavior cannot be understood without studying the context in which he lives in?
sociocultural
Researchers obtain informed consent of individuals participating in their studies to ensure the participants understand that:
participation is voluntarily, confidential, and harmless for all.
A 9 year old girl learning to be competent at school would be in Erikson's psychosocial stage of :
Industry vs. inferiority
Zeke is reviewing a research study design for a co-worer. In it, he discovers a procedure that is questionable in terms of participant safety. For guidance, he turns to his academic discipline's:
Code of ethics
A crucial element of the science of human development is the:
focus on all kinds of people, young and old
The researcher most associated with operant conditioning is:
B. F. Skinner
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development is called:
pre operational
Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to:
develop a hypothesis
The scientist who first demonstrated classical conditioning was:
Ivan Pavlov
Cohort refers to a group of people who:
are born within a few years of one another
Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children are emphasizing the importance of:
nurture
Social learning theory emphasizes:
observation and imitation
Piaget was most interested in:
how children think
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
use senses and motor skills to understand the world
In cross-sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different:
age
If a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same:
ethnic group
Lev Vygotsky is best known for his contributions to ____ theory.
sociocultural
The set of moral principles used by each academic discipline and professional society to protect the integrity of research is referred to as their:
code of ethics
The study of human development is empirical, meaning that it is based on:
actual facts
According to psychoanalytical theories, human development is mainly determined by:
our unconscious motives and drives
A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was:
an experiment
A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable will result in a change in the other. What type of research is this person conducting?
correlational
Behaviorism focuses on which of the following?
observable behavior
The most advanced stage of cognitive development according to Piaget is the:
formal operational
A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10,20,30, and 40 years old, is conducting:
longitudinal research
Emil was taught as a child to surrender his chair to elderly if there were an insufficient number of chairs in a room. His action demonstrates the application of:
sociocultural theory
Developmentalists' argument over the relative importance of hereditary and environmental influences is called the:
nature-nurture controversy
The central thesis of sociocultural theory is that human development is the result of a dynamic interaction between developing persons and their:
surrounding society and culture
To understand levels of human development, Urie Brofenbrenner advocated a(n):
ecological-systems approach
In order, Freud's first three stages of development are:
oral, anal, phallic
When doing research with children, which of the following must be obtained?
the parent's informed consent
When an emergent theory becomes a consistent and recurring source of research, and becomes comprehensive and widely applied, it has become what type of theory?
grand
You and your high school classmates are part of the same:
cohort
Traits, capacities, and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of:
nature
In order to draw conclusions that are based on evidence, rather than opinion or wishful thinking, researchers use:
the scientific method
In operant conditioning, reinforcers:
strengthen behaviors which they follow
Our genetic structure is set:
at the moment of conception
The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people have developed over the years as a design for living are referred to as their:
culture
According to sociocultural theory, the zone of proximal development refers to the skills that:
the learner can master with assistance
An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is:
changing the data to support the hypothesis
Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research?
Cohort differences- that is, differences in background variables
Brain damage, loss of vision, and mental retardation which may be caused by eating undercooked meat and handling cat feces or garden dirt is attributed to:
toxoplasmosis
Bil is a genetic counselor. In his position, he has an ethical obligation to:
keep results of client's tests confidential, away form insurance companies and public records.
one difference between sperm cells and ova is that:
ova carry an X chromosome, whereas sperm carry either an X or a Y chromosome.
One of the surprising finding of the Human Genome Project is that:
all living creatures share genes.
The germinal period ends approximately:
two weeks after conception
Jeff's genome contains a recessive genes for cystic fibrosis. Jeff is said to be a ___ of the gene for cystic fibrosis.
carrier
Most zygotes with serious chromosomal problems:
do not begin to develop or are aborted spontaneously.
Full-term pregnancies typically last:
38 weeks from the date of conception
The second stage of labor begins when the:
baby's head appears at the opening of the vagina.
When a particular inherited characteristic is controlled more by one genes of a pair than by the other, the stronger gene is called:
dominant
Which of the following statements is true regarding new discoveries about genotypes and phenotypes.
most environmental influences on children raised in the same home are not shared.
Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes?
23 pairs
Chromosomal abnormalities occur when a zygote's cells have:
more or fewer than the usual 46 chromosomes.
The sperm and the ovum are:
gametes
FAS is caused by which of the following teratogens?
alcohol
Tony denied any involvement with Belinda but with a single drop of blood, his paternity for her child was confirmed. How?
Through his DNA
What is the function of the placenta?
To protect and nourish the developing fetus
Teratology is the study of:
birth defects
Molecules of DNA make up which of the following?
chromosomes
Trisomy-21 is also called:
Down syndrome
Suppose a particular couple has a 50/50 chance of having a child with a lifelong, painful disease that will require expensive medical care. Who makes the decision about whether the couple tries to conceive?
the couple
A sperm has ____ as many chromosomes as a normal body cell.
half
The best policy regarding prescription drugs during pregnancy is:
take drugs only if medically necessary, prescribed by a knowledgeable doctor.
An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its:
genotype
Approximately how many genes are contained in the human genome?
20,000
The chief chromosomal feature or fragile-X syndrome is that:
a single gene has more than 200 repetitions of one triplet.
Any birth which occurs 35 or fewer weeks after conception is considered to be:
preterm
A breech baby is:
buttocks first going into the cervix when labor begins.
In a normal uncomplicated birth, the position of presentation is:
head first
Which of the following is an indicator that a mother's behavioral traits might have an influence on her child even after the child is born?
Research shows that maternal stress can affect the fetal nervous system, influencing the child's lifelong response to stress.
How long is the fetal period?
From nine weeks after conception until birth
The baby is born at the end of:
the second stage of labor
During prenatal development, a particular organ or body part is most vulnerable to exposure to teratogens during its:
critical period
Rubella is:
another name for German measles
The first organ system that shows any sign of activity is the:
cardiovascular system
Genetic disorders that are dominant are:
always expressed
The fragile and tiny cell mass that is composed of cells from the duplicated, divided, and differentiated zygote is called:
a blastocyst
Which of the following is the scientific definition of infertility?
the inability to conceive after at least a year of trying to do so via sexual intercourse
The condition where one substance intensifies the effects of another substance is the:
interaction effect
Because most traits are polygenic, they are:
produced by many genes.
Phenotype refers to:
the actual expression of genetic traits
Monique contracted rubella early in her pregnancy. Damage is most likely to affect the embryo's:
eyes
When a baby is first born, it is bluish in color. As soon as it cries, it will begin to turn pink. Which of the following body parts will be the last to turn pink?
the hands and feet
The longest period of prenatal development is the:
fetal period
An image of an unborn fetus produced by using high-frequency sound waves is called a(n):
ultrasound
Since 1996, neural-tube defects have decreased by over 25 percent in the United States and Canada. No decrease has occurred in Europe. What is the reason for the decrease in the United States and Canada?
Cereals and breads in the United States and Canada are now fortified with folic acid.
Approximately what percentage of infertility problems originate with men?
33 percent
One of the genes for eye color from the mother matches exactly with a gene from the father at the moment of conception. This pair of genes is said to be:
homozygous
An XX pattern in the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus will:
be female
Implantation begins approximately how long after conception?
10 days
According to Piaget, the stage-five infant is like a:
scientist who experiments to see
In terms of visual development, newborns:
are legally blind
Erikson's second stage of development is called:
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
According to Piaget, the core of intelligence is called:
adaptation
When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:
Separation anxiety
"Proximity-seeking" and "contact-maintaining" behaviors are displays of:
attachment
Breast milk:
provides antibodies to fight diseases
A scientific term for becoming bored with an object after repeated exposure to it is:
habituation
Brain functions that rely on specific experiences to develop are called:
experience dependent
Piaget called the infants' first period of cognitive development:
sensorimotor intelligence
At what point in development is the sense of hearing already quite acute?
at birth
What is the function of neurotransmitters?
To carry information from one neuron to another.
According to the psychoanalytical theory, the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy is:
the mouth
The idea that "multiple attentional, social and linguistic cues" contribute to early language learning supports the idea of:
a hybrid theory of language learning
In Erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that of:
learning trust vs mistrust
In the text in reference to Jacob, how did Jacob's parents learn to relate to him?
through the use of "floor time"
FIne motor skills are those that:
require small body movements
Prior to Piaget's research, which of the following was an erroneous assumption about children's cognitive abilities?
Most people believed that children understood objects the same was that adults do
Which of the following develops at around 6 weeks of age?
the social smile
A reflex is a(n):
involuntary response to a stimulus
That objects continue to exist when they cannot be seen defines:
object permanence
A process stimulating the body's immune system to defend the body against a contagious disease is called:
immunization
An infant's distress at an unfamiliar person is called:
stranger wariness
The average child can walk well unassisted at about:
1 year
Once infants begin to interpret their perceptions through the process of adaptions, they
thinking
Developmentalists agree that infants' emotional development is directly connected to brain development in the areas of:
social awareness and reactions to stress
The sense that is the least developed at birth is:
vision
The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:
head-sparing
The term holophrase is used to denote:
the infant's use of one word to express a whole thought
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
use senses and motor skills to understand the world
The learned ability to move and control some parts of the body is referred to as:
motor skill
The average newborn doubles her birthweight in:
four months
A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:
eats excessively
Whenever the eyes, ears, tongue, skin, or mouth detect a stimulus, ___ has occurred.
sensation
Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called:
synchrony
Which of the following statements is true?
In the final stage of sensorimotor intelligence, toddlers begin to anticipate and solve simple problems by using mental combinations.
Sensorimotor stage four is the stage of:
new adaptations and anticipation
Which of the following theories compares human thinking processes to the processes of a computer?
information-processing theory
The process through which unused and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die is called:
pruning
On average, children begin saying recognizable words at about:
12 months of age
Newborns prefer:
speech over most other sounds
Secure attachment makes a toddler:
willing to explore
Which of the following best describes the cortex of the brain?
It makes up the outer layers of the brain and is responsible for thinking, feeling, and sensing
The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a person first:
gain awareness of other people
Infants' repetition of certain syllables at the age of about 6 or 7 months is called:
babbling
If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may ten touch her nose. This shows that the child has some:
self-awareness
What is the name of the thick, high-calorie fluid which is secreted by a new mother's breasts for a few days following birth?
colostrum
Which of the following represents the first type of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence that involves the infant's own body?
primary circular reactions
Once an infant becomes responsive to other people and to objects and touches and moves them, she is engaging in:
Secondary circular reactions
"Constitutionally based individual differences in emotions, activity, and self-control" would be a useful and appropriate definition of:
temperament
Parents of a 5-year-old girl are likely to say:
"She isn't eating enough"
Writing your name is a _____, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) _____.
fine motor skill; gross motor skill
Piaget believed that between the ages of 2 and 6, it is difficult for children to think:
logically.
According to Erikson, which of the following is typical of young children?
a sense of self-doubting and an immodest self-concept
To focus on one aspect of a situation and simultaneously exclude all others is called:
centration
Skills that a person can perform with assistance, but which they cannot quite perform on their own lie within the:
Zone of proximal development
An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed:
emotional regulation
Consumption of calcium by children is lower than it was 20 years ago because:
children are drinking more soda
If a preschool child thinks a tall 20-year-old is older than a short 40-year-old, this is an example of:
focus on appearance
A young child will have the most difficult time understanding words which:
express the relationships of place and time
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but is not intended to harm is called:
rough-and-tumble play
William is at the toy store and sees a construction set. William asks his dad if he can have it for his birthday. His dad asks him if he thinks he would be able to use it. William reminds his dad of how good he is at building models with his Legos. Which of the following is demonstrated by this example?
William's strong sense of self-esteem
The area of the brain that is crucial in expressing and regulating emotions is the:
limbic system
In which of the following areas will deficits be most apparent in a child who is maltreated?
social skills
Vygotsky's theory includes the idea of:
young children as "apprentices in thinking"
Five-year-old Drew has temper tantrums that are diminishing, and he is better able to control his emotions. From a brain development standpoint:
His prefrontal cortex is becoming more developed
_____ is generally considered a more mature emotion than _____ because the former one comes from within the individual and demonstrates self-awareness.
Guilt; shame
Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:
an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex
Any superstitious behavior such as the belief that a black cat can bring bad luck is called:
animism
Generally speaking, which of the following best explains why young children have difficulty thinking logically?
Children in this age group tend to focus on single aspects of an object or situation
Erikson' stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years is called:
Initiative versus guilt
The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:
expectations for maturity
One of the most important ways in which children learn to control their aggression is through:
play
"I catched two mices in a trap"is an example of:
over regularization
A drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person is called:
intrinsic motivation
The Reggio Emilia early-childhood program focuses on:
mastery of skills not typically accomplished until age 7
Many preschoolers have trouble dressing themselves, writing or stringing small beads. This can be explained by a lack of:
brain maturation and having short, stubby fingers
Symptoms of maltreatment include:
hyper vigilance
Jodee, age 5, insists on having all the different foods on her plate seperated. If the vegetables touch the meat, for example, she insists on a clean plate. Jodee's parents are concerned about this behavior. What advice would you offer them?
Allow Jodee to grow out of this "just-right" obsession
According to Vygotsky, the internal dialogue that we have with ourselves either silently or out loud is referred to as:
private speech
The goal in dealing with child maltreatment is to:
stop it before it begins
The specialization of the functioning the two halves of the brain is called:
lateralization
Failure to understand that undoing a sequence of events will bring about the original conditions or situation is called:
irreversibility
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
mastery of gross and fine motor skills
The structures, rules, and techniques used to communicate meaning are referred to as:
grammar
The presence of imaginary friends positively correlates with an increase in:
initiative
Agression used to obtain or retain a toy or other object is called:
instrumental aggression
Pete's father is physically abusive toward Pete, often leaving bruises. His mother, also living in the home, witness the abuse but says nothing. She is:
neglectful
Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the:
authoritative pattern of parenting
A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called:
theory of mind
" Our traits and behaviors are the result of interaction between genes and early experience" is the textbook quote for the _____ theory of childhood development
epigenetic
A child is shown two identical tall containers, half-filled with water. The contents of one container are then poured into a short, wide container. If the child states that both containers still have the same amount, that phenomenon would be called:
conservation
Myelination
speeds up the transmission of neural impulses
Children usually prefer to play with:
children of their own sex
Romy understands that if she has 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say that Romy:
has demonstrated irreversible thinking
Children who are fearful, easily startled, and confused between reality and fantasy are expressing symptoms of:
post-traumatic stress disorder
The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from hod personal perspective is:
egocentrism
If a reported incident of child maltreatment has been investigated and verified, it is considered to be:
substantiated
According to your text, _______ differences are biological and _____ differences are culturally prescribed.
sex; gender
When learning a second language, the basics of language learning such as the naming explosion, fast mapping, and over regularization apply:
to both the native and second language
By the end of middle childhood, the capacity of long-term memory is:
virtually limitless
Children's "increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control" all contribute to their sense of:
autonomy
The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg's stage of pre conventional morality is:
the preoperational stage
In their learning and problem-solving abilities, school-age children differ from preschoolers in that they:
can evaluate their own progress
According to Freud, which of the following will 8-year-old Sven experience?
repression of his psychosexual needs
Preconventional morality involves:
an emphasis on reward and punishment
April is tested on her mastery of college chemistry. She is taking a(n):
achievement test
A significant delay in a specific area of learning not associated with a physical handicap, mental retardation, or stressful environment is indication of:
a learning disability
School-age children would most admire:
Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane
Evaluating a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish and monitor one's performance is called:
metacognition
Aptitude tests are designed to measure:
potential for learning
If you were to ask 10-year-old Stephen "WHo knows you best?"
"I know myself better than anyone"
The best example of an aggressive-rejected child is:
Veru, who is disliked by most children because she is uncooperative.
According to the information-processing theory, children learn concepts best if:
They are taught directly.
Susan decides not to tell the teacher that her classmate Ian is cheating on the math exam because she's afraid the other kids will call her a snitch. This is an example of stage ____ of moral development.
3
Which of the following is the biggest determinant of whether a child will develop healthy lifestyle habits?
having parents, teachers, and peers who demonstrate healthy lifestyle habits
The information-processing theory likens many aspects of human thinking to that of:
computers
When capable of concrete operational thought, children:
can apply their reasoning to real situations
Given the importance of metacognition, it is helpful for educators to:
tech cognitive strategies
Being overweight means having a body mass index (BMI) in the ___ percentile of growth charts; whereas obese means having a BMI in the _____ percentile.
85th; 95th
The issue of local control of curriculum and national standards is a controversial aspect of:
the No Child Left Behind Act
A 6-year-old child is likely to use _____ to remember a new activity or a new concept.
rehearsal
If Max responds that "Heinz shouldn't steal because stealing is against the law,' he is exemplifying which Kohlberg stage?
4
Piaget has provided us with the _____of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the _____.
individual context; social context
In the school years, Piaget believed that children are in the period of:
concrete operational thought
The child most likely to be diagnosed with ADHD is:
Scott, a North American boy who has concentration difficulties and is very impulsive
The ability to concentrate on certain specific stimuli while ignoring others is:
selective attention
Gabriella, an average 10-year-old, can probably throw a ball _____ she could when she was 6.
twice as far
Children with attention-deficit disorders:
experience difficulty in concentrating
According to Piaget, which of the following abilities do children gain during middle childhood?
logic
Child psychologists agree that drugs are:
both underused and overused with treating children with ADHD.
According to Erikson's theory, children is middle childhood tend to judge themselves as either.
industrious or inferior
Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development?
preconventional
Two factors that universally interfere with family function in every nation are:
low income and high conflict
extensive neural myelination allows:
automatization to improve
Jeremy understands that his sister Sarah is still a girl whether she wears a dress or pants. This is an example of Jeremy's understanding of:
identity
Eduardo is in the fourth grade. Part of the instruction in his classroom is conducted in English and part is conducted in Spanish. His classroom demonstrates:
bilingual education
Which of the following learning disabilities is difficult to diagnose and is characterized by unusual difficulty with reading?
dyslexia
Frequently, school-age children on a baseball field will shout, "Think fast!" and immediately throw a baseball in the direction of a teammate. What is being tested is the teammate's:
reaction time
When one assess one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers, one is engaging in:
social comparison
The ratio between a person's height and weight is expressed as:
BMI
Which of the following abilities is necessary in order for children to be aware of what they already know and what they still need to learn?
metacognition
Sonja is studying for an exam while her roommate is talking to her boyfriend on the phone. Sonja cannot concentrate on her books because she is unable to use:
selective attention
A common characteristic of bullies is that they:
lack empathy
Because school children judge their own talents and limitations more realistically than preschoolers:
their self-confidence may suffer as they compare themselves to others
Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:
withdraw-rejected
The ability to understand connections between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, is called:
transitive interference
One of the major differences in brain development that distinguishes middle childhood is the development of:
automatization
By the age of 10, which of the following is true regarding friendships:
Both boys and girls want to have best friends
Fir drills, soccer practice, and reading out loud all use _____ to become automatic processes.
rehearsal