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22 terms

Unit 2 Enlightenment and Revolutions

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Coup d'etat
a sudden over throw of the government
Bourgeoisie
the middle class of society
Taille
French for the "chief tax"
Natural Rights
rights with which all humans are supposedly born, including the rights to life, liberty, and property
Divine Right
the belief that kings received their power from God and are responsible only to God
Laissez-faire
literally "let people do what they want"; the concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone.
Separation of powers
a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances.
Social contract
the concept proposed by Rousseau that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will; and all individuals should be forced to abide by the general will since it represents what is best for the entire community.
Nationalism
unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols, a love for one's country
Constitutional monarchy
a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution
Despotism
the exercise of absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way
Checks and balances
a political system that keeps from one branch of government from abusing its power and keeping branches equal
Parliament
a representative body or legislative government that makes political decisions and writes laws.
Louis XVI
a French King that believed in divine right and absolute monarchy until the time of the French Revolution.
John Locke
Enlightenment thinker that promoted natural rights and the idea that people are allowed to rebel if the government does not provide these rights and freedoms.
Montesquieu
Enlightenment thinker that believed in the separation of powers of governments rather than having one group holding all the power.
Rousseau
Enlightenment thinker that coined the term "social contract" where people within a society must abide by laws in order for the community to live in harmony.
Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan military and political leader who fought for freedom in South America against the Spanish Empire
Napoleon
French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution
Voltaire
Enlightenment thinker who promoted civil liberties such as freedom of religion and speech
Enlightenment
intellectual movement during the 1700s that promoted democratic ideas.
philosophes
intellectuals, writers, journalists, economics, and social reformers that used reason to solve social problems during the Enlightenment.