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In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as


The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called


The outermost connective tissue covering the nerves is the


The complex, interwoven network formed by contributions from the ventral rami neighboring spinal nerves is termed


Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are the ______ reflexes


The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the ___ reflex


The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the


Small wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called


Which of the following is not recognized structural classification for neurons


The most abundant class of neuron in the central nervous system


The cytoplasm that surrounds the nucleus of a neuron is called the


The axon is connected to the soma at the

Axon hillock

Axons terminate in a series of fine extensions known as

Terminal arborization

The site of intercellular communications between neurons is the


The rabies virus travels to the CNS via

Retrograde axopladmic transport

Neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called


Neurons that have several dendrites and a single axon are called


Which of the following activities or sensations is not monitored by the interoceptors


At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its Na-K ion exchange pump transports

sodium and potassium

Ion channels that are always open are called ____ channels

Passive (leak) channels

The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the

pia mater

If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed

loss of sensory (organs)

Samples of the CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the

subarachnoid space in the lumbar portion

In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?


in an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about

terminal end of the spinal cord, near L1, L2

The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

somatic and visceral sensory nuclei

The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain maily

somatic motor nuclei

Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the

central canal, subarachnoid

The all-or-nothing principle states that

a given stimulus either triggers a typical action potential or none at all

Which of the following types of nerve fiber possesses the fastest speed of impulse propagation

Type A

The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is


When a second EPSP arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared, what occurs?

temporary summation

The _____ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament

filum terminale

The spinal cord consists of five regions and ___ segments


Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the

meninges, pia mater

Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the

gray commissures

The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains

axons of sensory neurons

A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a

spinal nerve

Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in the lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compresses?

lumbar L1-L5

Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?


The ventral rami form four major plexuses, including all of the following except the

1. cervical plexus 2. brachial plexus 3 lumbar plexus 4. sacral plexus

As the _______ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and the tibial nerve


Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system


The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated

afferent division of the PNS carries impulses inward to central organs, and the nerves that conduct impulses from periphery to brain/spinal cord

Functions of astrocytes include all of the following except

1. maintain blood/brain barrier 2 create 3D framework for CNS 3 repair damaged neural tissue

Clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called


Neurons that have one axon and one dendrite, with the soma in between, are called


The following are the main steps in the generations of an action potential. The proper sequence of these event

1 depolarization of threshold 2 activation of Na channels and rapid depolarization 3 inactivation of Na and activation of K channels 4 closing of K channels

Which of the following is not a function of the neuroglia

1. separate and protect neurons, supportive framework for neural tissue, act as phagocyte, help regulate the composition of the interstitial fluid

The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by


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