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Pre-AP World History Fall Final Review

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Neolithic Age
Also known as The New Stone Age. Began around 8000 B.C. , The New stone age which went from about 8000 B.C to 3000 B.C. People who lived during this learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals. When society settled down and had permanent dwellings.
Artifact
Remains, such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made object, that are used by scientist in order to learn more about the past.
Characteristics of a civilization
1. advanced cities 2. specialized workers 3. complex institutions 4. record keeping 5.advanced technology
Fertile crescent
Also known as Mesopotamia which is located between the Tigris and Euphrates river. This was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states by a monarchy. It was polytheistic. It has unpredictable flooding. They were the first to create a written language(cuneiform), used bronze, plows, irrigation, wheel, sail, and currency. The women could do anything except own land.
Hammurabi's code
Used by the fertile crescent river valley, established high standars of behavior and stern punishments for violators; civil laws regulated mostly everything such as wages dealings and relationships, created by King Hammurabi
Pyramids
Immense structures that was a tomb for kings. used in the Egyptian river valley
Dynasty
Series of rulers from a single family. Chinese dynasty in order... Shang Zhou Chin Han Sui Tang Song Yuan Ming Qing Republic Mao Zedong
Theocracy
Type of government where the ruler is a define figure. Egypt had a theocracy
Nile River
the longest river in the world; the Ancient Egyptians depended upon it for survival. flows northward for 4100 miles
Mummification
Egyptians way to preserve a dead body by embalming and drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying.
Papyrus
Reeds that grew in the marshy delta. Used by Egyptians for paper.
Menes
king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt
Indus Valley Civilization
2500 - 1750 BC; Depended on the Indus and Ganges rivers.Had predictable flooding because of monsoons.Had the first carefully planned cities with sophisticated plumbing. Historians don't know a lot about them because they cant read the writing.
River Valleys of China
2000 - 1500 BC; Depended on the Yellow and Yangtze river. Used dynasty, ancestor worship, Mandate of heaven, and feudalism. First to use silk, coined money, and iron.
Caste system
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Varnas
The social divisions of the caste system that included from top to bottom: 1)priests (Brahmins), 2) rulers or warriors(Kyshatryas); 3) farmers, craftspeople, traders(Vaisyas); 4) workers and servants (Sudras); 5) Untouchables
Hinduism
Collection of religious beliefs. Teachings - Vedas and Upanishads. Began in ancient times on the Indian subcontinent. Main teachings are Moksha,reincarnation, karma, and the caste system
Moksha
Achievement of perfect understanding in Hinduism.
Untouchables
Most impure group of people that was so impure that they lived below the caste system stuck with the undesired jobs
Buddhism
a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the endless sequence of births and deaths. They try to reach enlightenment by following the 4 noble truths; which is the principle that everything is suffer that is caused by desire. the only way to escape is to reach enlightenment.
Karma
good or bad deeds. Practiced by Hinduism people.
Nirvana
Release from selfishness and pain
Siddhartha Gautama
Also known as Buddha. born as a Kshatriya. about 537 BC Siddhartha left his birthplace of Nepal area
Torah
First 5 books of the Hebrew Bible. Considered most sacred writings in Jewish tradition
Monotheism
Belief in 1 God. First 3 monotheistic religions were Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Solomon
Son of David, most powerful of Hebrew kings. Built Jerusalem and temple to hold the Ark of the Temple in order to glorify God.in order to do this he had to raise taxes and labor.
Moses
The man who led the Hebrews out of slavery. He received the 10 commandments from God.
Covenant
The mutual promise between God and the founder of the Hebrew people. The first was God promised that he would protect Abraham and his descendants.
Assyrians
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire
Chaldeans
One of Assyria's enemies that combined with Medes to demolish Nineveh, Assyrian's capitol.
Nebuchadnezzar
The most famous Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city whose palace featured the famous Hanging Gardens which were trees and flowers that grew on its terraces and roofs that, from the ground, seemed to hang in the air.
Persians
an empire based on tolerence and diplomacy; relied on a strong military to back up their policies, Indo-European who lived in now what is called Iran, Became one of the largest empires of the time.
Zoroaster
a Persian prophet, lived around 600 B.C. taught that the 2 spiritual armies fought for one's soul; the god of truth and light, Ahura Mazda, and the god of evil and darkness, Ahriman, founder of Zoroastrianism
Cyrus
Persian king that expanded the Persian empire greatly. He was also a very kind and tolerant king. He also allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem.
Darius
Successor after Cambyses, Cyrus son. He is responsible for the expansion of Persia. He made a province in western India and expanded Persia as far north as Macedonia. His only failure was his incapability to conquer Greece
Confucius
China's most influential scholar. born in 551 BC started at the end of Zhou dynasty. philosopher who believed that social order, harmony, education and good government could be organized around 5 basic relationships, filial piety. He founded Confucianism through filial piety. practiced by Han dynasty.
Polis
City-state. Fundamental political unit of Greece because of the geography of the region.
Greek geography
Consisted mainly of mountainous peninsulas jutting out into the Mediterranean sea which cause lack of farmland and division of Greece. Many islands. Aegean, Ionian, and the Black sea were important because Sea- allowed travel to become easy. The Climate- Moderate temperatures
Mycenaeans
Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.; leading city called Mycenae which could withstand any attack; nobles lived in splendor; these people invaded many surrounding kingdoms; fought in Trojan war with the city of Troy.
Dorians
A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization. Not very advanced; economy fell, trade came to a standstill, and forgot how to write.
Homer
Bind man who composed epics, like the Illiad and Odyssey.
Trojan war
Mycenaeans (Greeks) vs. Troy. Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen, wife of the Mycenaen's king. Fictional cause of war; Greeks won when they tricked the Trojans with the Trojan Horse. Historians believe that they actually fought over land or something else.
Xerxes
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece by sea in 480 B.C. and was defeated.
Oligarchy
Government ruled by few powerful people.
Monarchy
Ruled by kings or monarchs (Ex: River Valley-Civilizations.)
Aristocracy
Ruled by small groups of nobles, land owning families.
Phalanx
Fighting formation where foot soldiers, hoplites, stood side by side holding a spear in 1 hand and a shield in the other hand.
Solon
Athenian leader that abolished debt slavery and freed slaves. limited land allowed to be owned, extended citizenship, allowed all to participate in the Athenian assembly, and allowed everyone to press charges against wrong doers. But he neglected land reforms.
Sparta
Greek city-state in the southern part of Greece that is also known as Peloponnesus. Ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
Helots
Peasants forced to work on land, kind of like a slave. Sparta forced conquered people to be helots. (Ex: Messenians)
Direct democracy
Form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
Pericles
Athenian wise and able statesman who led Athens to its golden age. Skillful politician, inspiring speaker, and a respected general. His 3 goals were to 1) strengthen Athenian democracy, 2) hold and strengthen the empire, and 3) glorify Athens.
Draco
Athenian lawmaker whose code included unfair practices of debt slavery. This made Athens upset
Cleisthenes
An aristocrat, created a council of 500 and helped form Athenian democracy
Socrates
Greek philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
Plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society. Was also the teacher of Aristotle
Aristotle
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic where he profoundly influenced Western thought.
Aristophanes
Wrote the first great comedies of the stage, including The Birds and Lysistrata.
Parthenon
Masterpiece of craftsmanship and design. Temple was built to honor the Goddess Athena. Located in Athens.
Classical art
Art that values order, balance, and proportion.
Peloponnesian war
War between Athens and Sparta in 431BC. After 27 years of war Athens surrender.
Macedonia
Kingdom north of Greece, ruled by Phillip II and Alexander the Great that conquered Greece and the Persian empire in the 300s BC
Phillip II
The father of Alexander the Great; A king of Macedonia. Created a great army for Macedonia, that conquered Greece.
Alexander the Great
King of Macedonia; son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and Persia; goal was to conquer the known world
Hellenistic period
Blending between Greek culture with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences. Important advances in math, science, and philosophy.
Ptolemy
ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe
Archimedes
Scientist that estimated the value of pi. Explained law of the lever and invented the compound pulley to lift heavy objects.
Etruscans
Native people to Italy. Skilled metal workers and engineers. Romans adopted their writing system and their religion.
Roman law
Written on 12 tablets, or tables, that hung in the Forum. All free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.
Republic
Form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote to select their leaders.
Legion
Large Roman military units that consisted of 5,000 foot soldiers.
Punic wars
War between Rome and Carthage. They only fought 3 wars. 1) for control of Sicily. ending with the defeat of Carthage, 2) Hannibal wanted revenge so he led a surprise attack on Rome by going through the Alps. They attacked Rome leaving devastating results for Rome. Then Scipio matched Hannibal's strength and pushed him back to his home city, 3) Rome attacks Carthage and succeeds
Julius Caesar
Ambitious and daring leader that emerged to bring order to Rome. He was in a triumvirate with 2 other men. He was the governor of Gaul. He later split the triumvirate and he named himself dictator for life. Later his senators killed him.
Triumvirate
Group of 3 rulers. First one was with Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus
Gospels
The main source of Jesus' life and teachings. The first 4 books of the new testament
Constantine
312 AD he became Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians because he saw a sign at the battle at Milvian Bridge.
Christ
Also means Messiah or Savior in Greek.
Peter
One of the first apostles, that spread the teachings of Jesus throughout Palestine and Syria.
Paul
Also known as Saul. He spread Christ's teaching throughout Rome during the Pax Romana.
Pax romana
Time of peace which made it safe to travel and trade. This made the perfect condition to spread ideas as well.
Germanic peoples
Attached by Huns in Asia so was forced to move Westward into Europe. (Ex: Franks, Burgundians, and Vandals)
Huns
Fierce Mongol nomads from central Asia. They attacked Germanic tribes forcing them to leave and go to Rome.
Alaric
king of the Visigoths who captured Rome in 410. Plundered it for 3 days.
Fall of Rome
contributing factors to this event include: military interference in politics, civil war and unrest, moving the capital and division of the empire, low confidence, disloyalty, contrast between rich and poor, poor harvests, gold and silver drain, inflation, and threat of attack; immediate causes were pressure from Huns, invasion by Germanic tribes and by Huns, sack of Rome, and conquest by invaders
Virgil
Poet whose most famous Latin Literature is the Aeneid.
Romance Languages
Mix between Latin and Germanic tribes languages
Aqueduct
Roman design to bring water into cities and towns.
Bas-relief
low-relief images project from a flat background. Used to to tell stories and to represent crowds of people, soldiers in battle, and landscapes.
Pompeii
Best Roman painting are found here. 79 AD Mount Vesuvius erupted, covering Pompeii in a thick layer of ash killing many people.
Roman religion
they worshipped the major gods and goddesses of Greece, although they gave them Latin names.
Brahma
God who created the world according to Hinduism
Vishnu
God; preserver of the world according to Hinduism
Civil Service System
the practice of hiring goverment workers by civilians taking examinations
Silk
a valuable cloth, originally made only in china from threads spun by silkworms. Also before paper, Chinese used it to write on.
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632) Angel Gabriel talked to him in a dream
Mecca
Muhammad started preaching here about Islam. Considered their Holy city.
Qur'an
Holy book of the Muslims
Islam
Submission to the will of Allah
Muslim
One who has submitted
Five pillars
To be Muslim; all believers had to carry out these 5 duties. 1) faith- Must testify to "there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah", 2) Pray 5 times a day facing toward Mecca, 3) Alms- 10% of their yearly income to charity, 4) fasting- Must fast during Ramadan, 5) Pilgrimage- make Hijrah to Mecca at least once.
Shari'a
The body of laws Muslims live by. Regulates family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims. Brings religious matter and civil matters together.
Caliph
Title that means "Successor" or "Deputy". Abu-Bakr became the first in 632. The next ones were Umar, Uthman, and Ali
Abbasids
Took over the Umayyads in 750 because they were straying from the Muslim traditions and culture. Capital was Baghdad. They had a strong bureaucracy, controlled trade, and had a simple way of life
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
Calligraphy
The art of beautiful handwriting created by Muslims because drawing was prohibited.
"People of the book"
Jews and Christians.
Al-jabr
called algebra today
Astrolabe
Used by Muslims to measure the angles of the sun and stars above the horizon.
House of wisdom
A combination of library, academy, and translation center created by Caliph Al-Ma'mum in the early 800's
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia and the hippodrome, as well as a new legal code, the Justinian code.
Icons
Religious images used by eastern Christians to aid their devotion.
Cyrillic alphabet
An alphabet used by many Slavic languages during the ninth century.
Russian culture
Blending of Slavs, Byzantines, and Vikings people. Or a blending of Slavic and Greek tradition.
Slavs
People from the forests north of the Black Sea.
Czar
Russian version of Caesar.
Boyars
Nobles
Golden horde
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia. Islam didn't spread until after Batu's death.
Movable type
Printer that could arrange blocks of individual characters in a frame to make up a page for printing. One of the great technological advances in the Tang and Song eras.
Chinese gentry
Scholar-officials and their families. Powerful and well-to-do people.Attained status through education and civil service positions.
Mongols
Nomadic people from the steppe. Split into different clans until Ghanghis Khan united them all to conquer more land.
Pastoralist
Nomadic people that herded domesticated animals
Genghis Khan
Real name is Temujin but took this name that means "Universal leader" after uniting the Mongol clans. He conquered much of Asia, and later spite it up into 4 khanates.
Kamakazi
"divine wind" This saved Japan from a Mongol attack.
Kublai Khan
Grandson of Ghengis Khan that assumed the title of the Great Khan in 1260. Founded the Yuan dynasty. He united China for the first time, opened China to greater foreign contacts and trade, and tolerated Chinese culture and made few changes to the system of the government
Ming
New dynasty formed after the Yuan dynasty. Some Mongols stayed in China during this time and were valued for their skill as calvarlymen. but others returned to their homeland on the Mongolian steppe.
Franks
Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
Clovis
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
Charlemagne
Military leader who forced the people he mconquered to convert. First to be named Holy Roman Emperor. Crowned king by Pope.
Treaty of Verdun
Charlemagne's 3 grandsons split the empire.
Viking
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavi by sea.
Serf
People who could not lawfully leave the place they were born
Tithe
Church tax that consumed one-tenth of a person's income.
Manor
Lord's estate
Chivalry
Complex set of ideals that knights had to follow
Troubador
Poet musicians at the castles and courts of Europe.
Song of Roland
One of the earliest and most famous mediecal epic poems.
Clergy
Religious officials
Lay investiture
Practice where kings appoint church officials
Sacrament
Rites to achieve salvation (Ex: Communion, babtism, etc...)
Canon law
Church law
Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor, opposed the pope on the issue of lay investiture, he is excommunicated and ends up begging the pope for forgiveness
Fredrick I
Also was named Barbosa because of his red beard. He went to fight in a crusade and died on the crusade by drowning.
Concordat of Worms
States that only Church can appoint bishops but kings can veto that decision.
Francis of Assisi
1181-1226 Italian monk who founded the Franciscan order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and sick
Venerable Bede
English monk who wrote the history of England.
Simony
Practice of selling church positions
Inquisition
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
Reconquista
Drove anyone that was not Christian out of Spain.
Crusades
"Holy War" issued by Pope Urban II to aid their Christian comrades in Constantinople. Also to recapture Jerusalem.
Romanesque
Style of church architecture using round arches, domes, thick walls, and small windows
Gothic
Style of architecture of the church that thrusts upwards toward the heaven. Having big stained glass windows, and big ceilings.
Henry II
In 1154, He became king of England, broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law and establishing royal courts. Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine, father of King John
Eleanor of Aquitaine
powerful French duchess, Married King Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him.
Richard the Lionhearted
Led a crusade to take over Jerusalem, but ended up making a deal with Saladin to let Muslims stay there but allow Christians to visit.
Magna carta
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial.
Phillip II
Powerful Capetian, also known as Philip Augustus who ruled from 1180 - 1223. King of France and greatly increased France's size. Created stronger central government by establishing royal officials called bailiffs, who collected taxes.
Great schism
A split in the church because 1) Phillip IV moved the pope to France 2) Pope went back to Rome. This caused a split in the Catholic Church. Resolved by the Council of Constance. Results on this was that it caused people to question the church.
Bubonic plague
Also known as the Black Plague that was caused by the diseases carried in rats found on ships when trading. The economic affects it had were a decline in population, few workers, trade declined, rices rose, and serfs left manors so it caused an end to feudalism. Affect it had on the church was that they lost prestige and credibility when their prayers did not come true.
Hundred years' war
Caused by a dispute over the heir to the throne, an English man or a French man. The English won in the long run. The affects the war had was that the invention of the longbow caused the downfall of chivalry and it increased nationalism. An important battle that was fought was the one where the French army led by Joan of Arc forced the English out of France.
John Wycliff
Questioned the church after the Great schisms. Told people to interpret the Bible themself rather than what the pope.