What is the best description for a political party?
Organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices, thereby controlling government. Chapter 9
The U.S. began its tradition of what kind of party system in the early 18th century?
Two party system Chapter 9
What is external mobilization?
Occurs when a group of politicians outside government organizes popular support to win governmental power. Chapter 9
What is internal mobilization?
Occurs when political conflicts break out and government officials and competing factions seek to mobilize popular support.| Chapter 9
During the mid to late 19th century the democratic party was divided by what two issues?
Slavery and the civl war. Chapter 9
What is triangulation?
The pursing of a moderate course between republicans and democrats helped the democratic party gain political power.| Chapter 9
What occurred in 1994?
The republicans took control of both houses of congress for the first time in 4 decades. Chapter 9
What were the two major parties in the U.S. during the 1830's and 1840's?
Democrats and Whigs Chapter 9
What is electoral realignment?
The point in history when a new party supplants the ruling party, becoming in turn the dominate political force. Chapter 9
On what dates did electoral realignments happen in the U.S?
1800s| 1828 | 1860 | 1896|* 1932-36 Chapter 9
3rd parties typically represent what?
Social and economic interests that are disregarded by the two major parties. Chapter 9
Why do 3rd parties have short lives?
They are absorbed and integrated by the major parties. Chapter 9
What is a plurality system?
A system that develops when the winner of an electoral race obtains more votes than any other candidate Chapter 9
What are 528 committees?
Nonprofit independent groups that receive and disburse funds to influence the notation, election, or defeat of candidates. Chapter 9
The 527 committees were created from the...?
BCRA in 2002 - bipartisan campaign reform act Chapter 9
Shadow Parties, also known as 527 Committees, are named after...?
Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code Chapter 9
What is the most common favor political bosses distributed to loyal party members during the era o machines were...?
Jobs Chapter 9
What is party identification?
An individual voter's psychological ties to one party or another. Chapter 9
What is a party activist?
Partisans who contribute time, energy, and effort to support their party and its candidates. Chapter 9
Solid support for the Republican party comes from which region?
The mountain west, the southwest, and the south. Chapter 9
What is gender gap?
A Distinctive pattern of voting heavier reflecting the differences in views between women and men. Chapter 9
What year was the constitution ammended to give 18 year olds the right to vote?
1971, due to the vietnam war the voting age was changed from 21 to 18. Chapter 8
During the 19th and early 20th centuries the criteria for determining ones eligibility to vote were established by?
The state Chapter 8
What were the restrictions placed on voting rights throughout American history?
Poll taxes, racial restrictions, property requirements, and residency requirements of long duration. Chapter 8
What year was the constitution amended to allow women the right to vote in public elections?
1920 Chapter 8
The 15th amendment, which was passed in 1970, mandated what?
No state could prevent the right to vote on account of race. Chapter 8
The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s used which forms of participation?
Sitings and marches, litigation, and lobbying and political pressure. Chapter 8
What have churches and evangelists affected?
Civil Rights Movement, Anti-Abortion Protest, and mobilization of the republican party. Chapter 8
What was the supreme court case that ruled prayers in public schools unconstitutional?
Engel v. Vitale Chapter 8
Which of the following groups have had the highest levels of political participation?
Senior citizens Chapter 8
What is the most common form of political participation carried out by young people?
Volunteering Chapter 8
What are key factors of indicating ones level of political participation?
Age, income, and education. Chapter 8
What is socioeconomic status?
Status in society based on level of education, income, and occupational prestige. Chapter 8
Your level of concern about public issues is best measure by the degree of your?
Civic engagement Chapter 8
Participation in politics is dependent on which three things?
Civic engagement, resources, and recruitment. Chapter 8
What is political mobilization?
The process by which large numbers of people are organized for a political activity. Chapter 8
Studies show that people are more likely to participate in politics when?
When someone they know asks them to get involved. Chapter 8
What is the function of an election in a democracy?
Elections promote leadership accountability because the threat of defeat at the polls exerts pressure exerts pressure on those in power to conduct themselves in a responsible manner and to take account of popular wishes when they make their Decisions. Chapter 10
When are national elections in the United States held?
Every 4 years, in the 1st tuesday of November. Chapter 10
What is a mid-term election?
Congressional elections that do not coincide with a presidential election Chapter 10
In order for a political party to run in a general election they first hold a?
Primary election Chapter 10
What is a closed primary?
A primary election where only registered members of the political party may vote in a primary election to select that party's candidates. Chapter 10
What is an open primary?
A primary election in which all registered voters decided the day of the primary in which party's primary they will participate. Chapter 10
What is a referendum?
The practice of referring a measure proposed or passed by a legislsture to the vote of the electorate for approved or rejection. Chapter 10
Which offices are not subject to recall elections?
Presidents, senators, and federal judges. Chapter 10
What is a majority system?
To win, the candidate must receive at least 50% of the votes plus one. Chapter 10
What is the most common electoral system used in general elections in the United States?
Plurality system Chapter 10
Smaller and weaker parties are more likely to have electoral success under which system of elections?
Proportional representaion Chapter 10
A majority electoral system which is used on a limited bases in the United States requires that a candidate must what to win an election?
50% of the votes plus 1. Chapter 10
The boundaries of legislative districts in the United States have to be redrawn how often?
Every 10 years. Chapter 10
When the supreme court announced the principle of one person one vote what did it mean?
Lesgislative districts within a state must include roughly equal populations. Chapter 10
What is split-ticket voting?
Voters able to make their choices on the basis of the individual rather than the on the collective merits of a party's candidate. Chapter 10
What is proportional representation?
A multiple member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the vote. Chapter 10
What is straight-ticket voting?
The practice of casting ballots for a party's presidential candidate and then automatically votes for the rest of that party's candidates. Chapter 10
What is the coattail effect?
The result of voters casting their ballot for president or governer and automatically voting for the remainder of the party's ticket. Chapter 10
What is the electoral college?
The presidential electors from each state who met after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president. Chapter 10
What is Gerrymandering?
Appointment of voters in districts such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party.| Chapter 10
What is benign gerrymandering?
Attempts to draw district boudnaries as to create districts made up primarily of disadvantaged or underrepresented minorities. Chapter 10
What is a recall?
Procedure to allow voters an opportunity to remove state officials from office before their terms expire. Chapter 10
What is a runoff election?
An election held between two candidates who received the largest number of votes Chapter 10
What is a campaign?
An effort by political candidates and their staffs to win the backing of donors, political activists, and voters in their quest for political office| Chapter 10
What do campaign consultants do?
Conduct public opinion polls, produce television commercials, organize direct-mail campaigns, and develop the issues and advertising messages the candidate will use to mobilize support. Chapter 10
What is a delegate?
A political activists selected to vote at a party's national election. Chapter 10
What is a town meeting?
A media fomat in which candidates meet with ordinary citizens. This alows candidates to deliver messages without he presence of journalists or commentators. Chapter 10
What three factors influce voters?
Partisan loyalty, issues policy concerns, candidates characteristics, and the economy. Chapter 10
What is an Incumbent?
A candidate running for re-election to a position that he or she already holds. Chapter 10
Modern political campaigns do not rely on?
Large army of volunteers from the political parties Chapter 10
What are 6 techniques used at the general elections?
Polling, broadcasting media, phone banks, direct mail, professional public relations, and the internet. Chapter 10
What is a platform?
A party document, written at a national convention, that contains party philosophy, principles, and positions on issues. Chapter 10
What is a winner-take-all system?
A system in which all of a state's presidential nominating delegates are awarded to the candidate who wins the most votes, while runners-up receive no delegates Chapter 10
What is a caucus?
A Normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters. Chapter 10
What is an open caucus?
A presidential nominating caucus open to any one who wishes to attend. Chapter 10
What is a closed caucus?
A presidential nominating caucus open only to registered party members. Chapter 10
What is a personalty clash primary?
Occurs when ambitious individuals seek to secure election to office, and the candidates policies are the same. Chapter 10
What is a ideological struggle primary?
Occurs when one wing or faction of a party decides that it is not willing to compromise its principles for the sake of the party's electoral success, anodyne candidates policies differ dramatically. Chapter 10
What three types of elections are held in the U.S.?
Primary elections, General elections, Runoff elections| Chapter 10
Presidential elections are held how often?
Held every 4 years on the first tuesday in November. Chapter 10
How often are congressional elections held?
Every two years on the first tuesday in November. Chapter 10
What is the most important role for political parties in Texas?
Political parties provide a label under which candidate run for office and with which voters can identify. Chapter 21
What is the main role of the precinct convention?
Select delegates for the county convention. Chapter 21
What is presidential republicanism?
A voting pattern than began in the 1950s in which conservatives vote Democratic for state offices, but Republican for presidential candidates. Chapter 21
What is the Shivercrat Movement?
A movement led by the texas governor Allan Shivers during the 1950s, in which conservative democrats in Texas supported Republican candidates for office because many of them believed that the national Democratic Party had become too liberal. Chapter 21
Factional rivalries in the republican exist between which two groups?
Religious right and economic conservatives Chapter 21
What is the purpose of the primary election?
To select candidates for the general election Chapter 21
What are the functions of special districts?
To fill a vacancy in office, and to give approval for the state government to borrow money.|| Chapter 21
What is a white primary?
A primary election in which only white voters are eligible to participate. Chapter 21
What are methods that are regularly used to prevent minorities from voting:
Poll tax, white primaries, expanding the franchise, early registration. Chapter 21
What are the requirements to vote in Texas?
Must be 18 years old, A U.S. Citizen, A resident of Texas for 30 days, Resident of the county for 30 days, Cannot be a current felon, and Must be mentally competent.| Chapter 21
What did the motor voter act of 1993 do?
Gave the opportunity for people to register to vote while applying for a license. Chapter 21
What are the two most important factors that determine wether someone votes?
Income and education. Chapter 21
What are the reasons why Texas has low voter turnout?
1. Low levels of educational attainment |2. Low per capita income|3. High rate of poverty|4. Ethnicity|5. Residing in the south|6. Young population|7. Traditionalistic and individuals political culture|8. Weak political parities and interest groups|9. Poor media| Chapter 21