31 terms

APES Chapter 7 Review

After reading this chapter you should be able to: - describe the potential limits to human population growth. - describe important aspects of global and national population growth using demographic terminology and tools. - evaluate the social, economic, and environmental factors that have contributed to decreasing growth rates in many countries. - analyze relationships among changes in population size, economic development, and resource consumption at global and local scales. - explain how peopl…
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

demography
The study of human populations and population trends.
demographer
A scientist in the field of demography.
immigration
The movement of people into a country or region, having come from another country or region.
emigration
The movement of people out of a country or region, to settle in another country or region.
crude birth rate (CBR)
The number of births per 1,000 individuals per year.
crude death rate (CDR)
The number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year.
global population growth rate
[CBR - CDR] / 10
national population growth rate
[(CBR + immigration) - (CDR + emigration)] / 10
doubling time
The number of years it takes a population to double.
rule of 70
doubling time (in years) = 70 / growth rate
total fertility rate (TFR)
An estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years.
replacement-level fertility
The total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population size.
developed country
A country with relatively high levels of industrialization and income.
developing country
A country with relatively low levels of industrialization and income.
life expectancy
The average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live, given the current average life span and death rate in that country.
infant mortality rate
The number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births.
child mortality rate
The number of deaths of children under age 5 per 1,000 live births.
age structure diagram
A diagram that shows the numbers of individuals within each age category, typically expressed for males and females separately.
population pyramid
An age structure diagram that is widest at the bottom and smallest at the top, typical of developing countries.
population momentum
Continued population growth that does not slow in response to growth reduction measures.
net migration rate
The difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1,000 people in a country.
theory of demographic transition
The theory that as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth.
phase 1 of demographic transition
A preindustrial period where the country is experiencing slow population growth. There is low industry, low income, and the population is stable. This leads to the CBR, CDR, and TFR being high. While the GDP is low.
phase 2 of demographic transition
A period when the country is developing and experiencing a rapid population growth. There is increasing industry, increasing income, and the population is growing rapidly. This leads to the CBR and TFR being high. While the CDR is decreasing and the GDP is increasing.
phase 3 of demographic transition
A period when the country is developed and is experiencing a stable population growth. There is high industry and high income with population stabilities. This leads to the CBR and TFR decreasing. While the CDR is low and the GDP is high.
phase 4 of demographic transition
The post-developed period of the country when its experiencing declining population growth. There is high industry, high income, and the population is decreasing. This leads to the CBR and TFR being low. While the CDR is low/increasing and the GDP is high.
family planning
The practice of regulating the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control.
affluence
The state of having plentiful wealth; the possession of money, goods, or property.
IPAT equation
(Impact = population x affluence x technology) This is a conceptual representation of the three major factors that influence environmental impact.
urban area
An area that contains more than 385 people per square kilometer (1,000 people per square mile).
gross domestic product (GDP)
A measure of the value of all products and services produced in a country in a year.