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Middle Ages and Reformation Terms

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Charles Martel
Pepin of Heristal's son; decides to be the Mayor of the Palace instead of king because he has more power; famous for turning back troops to prevent an Arab invasion in Europe and to keep cultures separate
Battle of Tours
An invasion by the Moors from North Africa
Charlemagne
One of Pepin the Short's sons; brother died so he became the sole ruler (for 46 years), known as "Charles the Great"; named "Emperor of the Romans" by the Pope who also crowned him; built a kingdom from North Sea to the Mediterranean; use of calvary; valued education although he was illiterate and uneducated and built a school in Aachen (a new capital) led by Alcuin, a clergymen; died in 814
Treaty of Verdun
Charlemagne's only son, Louis the Pious had three sons who fought over control of the empire; ended in the split of the empire in 3 ways: modern day Germany, France, and a middle kingdom fought over by the other 2
feudalism
a system based on relationships, responsibility, trust, and protection; kings give land (fiefs) to knights and nobles (higher and lesser nobles: lords/vassels) in turn for protection, peasants work on the land and give payments in turn for protection
manorialism
a system based on agriculture and self-sustaining, fortified farms; divided into a village, farmland, pasture, and wasteland and included a lord's manor and a church
knights/chivalry
age 7: page under a noble, age 14: squire, assistant to a knight, age 20: knight if completed the necessities
monasticism
a system where people lived in communities with other monks or nuns
St. Benedict
the person who made the rules of monsticism: they must be chaste, poverous, and obedient
lay investiture
the system of appointing church leaders by secular leaders
Concordat of Worms
a meeting of the Church council in 1122 which split investiture into 2 parts; emperor can grant lands to the Church, but the Church was the only one that could grant religious control
primogeniture
the system which made the first born son receive control of the land when the king dies
excommunication
punishment that banishes one from the church and takes away their sacrements and therefore, their salvation
interdict
excommunication of a group, banning all Church ceremonies in a certain place
bourgeoisie
the middle class, between peasants and nobles; free of restrictions on other classes, they grew in wealth and power and were close with nobility in political control
guilds-merchants
goal was to regulate and monopolize; those who buy, sell, and trade
guilds-artisans
goal was to regulate and monopolize; producers of the crafts and goods
apprentice to master
start as an apprentice without pay under a master, became a journeyman and got paid for his work, finally a master after presenting his "masterpiece"
Crusades-motives
started in the goal of spreading Christianity and allowing those who did, to obtain salvation
Crusades-results
brought Europe in contact with more advanced civilizations, trade between the East and West increased; lesser nobles lost power and had to sell their land and let their serfs free; weakened the Church/papacy, wanted wealth more than religion, greed within itself
Crusades-significance
lead to more advancements and trade centers and ended up weakening the papacy
William of Normandy
took the throne of England claiming it was promised to him by the last king; weakened the Anglo-Saxon society; created a strong monarchial government; unifies England/France
Norman Conquest
William led Norman knights across the English Channel to defeat the Anglo Saxons and Harold in the Battle of Hastings
common law
King Henry II introduced trial by jury, with witnesses, verdict based on evidence; uniform throughout England and applies to everyone
Magna Carta
the document made after recognizing the king's abuse of power; must get permission before taxation, king is punished under the same law as citizens, power of the king limited
Model Parliament-England 1295
basis of England's legislature today; a meeting called together with elected representatives
Ivan III
1480: he forced the last Mongols out of Russia and added land under Ruric territory
Ivan IV
expanded Russia further; made himself the czar; tried to break the power of nobility violently; became known as "Ivan the Terrible"
Babylonian Captivity
when Pope Clement V unexpectedly moved the capitol of the papacy to Avignon in southern France
Great Schism
Pope Gregory XI moved the papacy back to Rome, after his death the College of Cardinals elected an italian, Urban VI as the pope, but later elected a different man, the French Clement VII, but Urban refused to resign; each had their own College of Cardinals in Rome and Avignon; a third pope was elected but the other 2 refused to resign but later they were all forced out of office and a final one was elected to take presidence
John Wycliffe
looked to limit Church power; he believed the Church should not own excess land, challenged salvation through the Bible alone; followers called the Lollards
John Huss
continued to spread John Wycliffe's ideas but was burned at the cross
Black Death
a pandemic which killed more people than any war thus far; caused by bacteria through rats and fleas; left black patches over the body, caused boils, lung attacks; some believed it was punishment from God
The Hundred Years' War-causes
both England and France tried to expand their territories
The Hundred Years' War-results
France became a strong national monarchy; finance peacetime army-opposition by nobility; English Parliament strengthened
The Hundred Years' War-significance
religion grew in France via Joan of Arc; technology born; both France and England grew in power
Battle of Crecy-significance
the English used longbows which killed the French before they could get close enough to attack; "marked the beginning of the end for hand-to-hand combat"
Estates-General
new kind of legislature; representatives met in the goal of a national tax
Joan of Arc
convinced Charles that the heavens had told her to fight and she lead a successful attack against the English; taken by the English and persecuted for witchcraft and was burned at the stake in 1431
Romanesque architecture
stone roof with heavy pillars and round arches; dark and heavy, but with colorful art
Gothic architecture
pointed arches, buttresses, flying buttresses; light, airy, tall and had stained glass windows
vernacular languages
"common people languages"; became the romance languages: French, Spanish, Latin, Italian
St. Augustine
a prominent Roman Catholic bishop theologian from Hippo in Algeria
City of God
the first book after the Bible providing Christian thought; believed humans are sinful if they live in the City of Man; believed salvation is found by living in the City of God and committing no sins without forgiveness; pride is the start of all sins
scholasticism
studied in universities developed by a group of philosophers; brought together faith and reason
Thomas Aquinas
a scholar who wrote the Summa Theologica; he was the first to write something different than St. Augustine; scholastic
Summa Theologica
a book that says that a person must acquire reason and faith and believes in divine revelation; says to challenge and question faith
Natalie Zemon Davis
the woman related to the making of "The Return of Martin Guerre in 1983
The Return of Martin Guerre
a movie set in the 16th century south of France; focused on many aspects of Medieval culture; plot shows identity theft and how the Medieval jury deals with it to eventually find the truth
Martin Luther
he was disturbed by the selling of indulgences and sought to purify Christianity; wrote the 95 Theses
Johann Tetzel
a man who sold indulgences as an "insurance policy" under Pope Leo X's plan to raise money to build new lavish Churches
Ninety-Five Theses
Martin Luther's reasons for the corruption of the Church through the selling of indulgences
salvation by faith alone
Martin Luther's belief that one should not have to buy indulgences through other people or have "good works" to gain salvation but instead that you can connect with God through faith alone
Charles V
an emperor who sparked the Counter-Reformation and set up the Council of Trent
Peasants Revolt 1525
Luther understood peasantry, and helped some of their demands but when they began to burn churches, castles, and monasteries he urged the noble's to put down the peasants
Peace of Augsburg 1555
the treaty that said each German state government could choose its religion and all in that state had to abide
John Calvin
published the Institutes of the Christian Religion; leader of Calvinism; agreed with Luther on faith and Bible alone but also believed in predestination
Institutes of the Christian Religion
the book of John Calvin which expressed the main ideas of Calvinism
Doctrine of Predestination
that God has already chosen who will be saved (the elect)
John Knox-Scotland
A Scottish leader who established presbyterianism, Scottish Catholicism
Huguenots
French Calvinists
Anabaptists
a group that believed that Baptism must be highlighted and understood, therefore they must be re-baptized as adults; also believed in the abolition of marriage, private property, and class distinctions; outcasted and persecuted
Henry VIII
named "Defender of the Faith" by Pope Leo X; created the Church of England when the Pope refused his proposal for a divorce because his wife could not bear a boy
Act of Supremacy 1534
declared that the ruler of England was the head of the Church in England
Church of England
adopted most Catholic principles but the ruler of England is the head of the church, not the pope
Anglican Church
another way to say the Church of England
Catholic Reformation
reforms by Catholic leaders in the attempt to gain back some of the people who left Catholicism
Counter-Reformation
used interchangeably with the Catholic Reformation
Council of Trent
a Council that lasted for 18 years in the goal to reform Catholicism; ended up with the 3 Rs and the S: refusal of protestant ideas, reaffirmation of Catholic ideas; reforms-regulating indulgences, internal structure, improve priest training, and the inquisition of heresy
Inquisition
the system by the Catholic Church which tried to end all opposing Protestant religions and heretics
Ignatius of Loyola
a former soldier who led the Jesuits; told members to be ready to obey Church orders without questioning
Jesuits
organized like an army in trying to get people to join or rejoin the Catholic church; first verbally promoted Catholicism, then resorted to Inquisition, and if still ineffective, resort to war