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Mylohyoid line

line on the inner aspect of the mandible, where the mylohyoid muscle attches

sublingual fossa

fossa on the medial surface of the mandible, above the mylohyoid line, that contains the sublingual salivary glasnd


which is more superior; the lingula of the mandibular foramen?

mandibular foramen

foramen on the mandible that allows the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels to exit or enter the mandibular canal


a bony spine, which serves as an attachment for the sphenomandibular ligament associated with the temporomandibular joint

temporomandibular joint

articulation between the temporal bone and mandible that allows for movement of the mandible

glenoid fossa

where the condyle of the TMJ articulates

mandibular notch

the depression on the mandible located between the condyle and coronoid process

coronoid process

anterior superior projection of the ramus of the mandible

articular eminence

what is the anterior border of the TMJ?


initial movement of TMJ, condyle stays within the glenoid fossa


occurs between the disc and the articular eminence of the temporal bone in the upper synovial cavity, with the disc, plus the condyle moving forward or backwards, down and up the articular eminence


what is the first movement of the TMJ?


facial nerve- both motor and sensory. serves the muscles of facial expression, etc. Exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen


muscle of facial expression that forms a portion of the cheek


muscle of facial expression in the mouth region that raises the chin

obicularis oris

muscle of facial expression that encircles the emouth


muscle of facial expression in the mouth region that is used when smiling


what muscle allows you to pout?

function of buccinator

it pushes the food bolus over the occlusal surface of posterior teeth

angle of the mouth

where does the buccinator insert?


what is the only muscle of facial expression that really aids in chewing?

origin of buccinator

starts at the alveolar process of the maxilla and the ptergoid mandibular raphae

palatine bones

make up the posterior 1/3 of the hard palate

median palatine suture

midline suture between the palatine process of the maxilla and between the horizontal plates of the palatine bone

lacrimal bones

paired facial bones that help to form the medial wall of the orbit

nasolacrimal duct

duct formed at the junction of the lacrimal and maxillary bones that drains the lacrimal fluid or tears

lacrimal and maxillary bones

what does the nasolacrimal duct connect?


single facial bone that articulates bilaterally with the temporal bones at the TMJ

mental protuberance

mandibular bony prominence of the chin

external oblique line

creast on the lateral side of the mandible, where the ramus joins the body of the mandible

external oblique line

where does the ramus join the mandible?


plate of mandible that extends superiorly from the body of the mandible

greater palatine foramen

foramen in the palatine bone that carries the greater palatine nerve and blood vessels

genial tubercles

midline bony projections or the mental spines on the inner aspect of the mandibles medial surface

hypoglossal canal

which canal in the occipital bone carries the 12th cranial nerve?

ethmoid bone

what is the single midline cranial bone of the skull?

superior orbital fissure

what fissure of the sphenoid bone houses cranial nerve numbers III, IV, and VI, that deal with the eye?

ethmoid bone

which cranial bone helps to form the nasal septum?

olfactory nerves

which nerves deal with smell and lay atop the ethmoid bone?

crista galli

what serves as an attachment for layers covering the brain?

ethmoid bone

on which bone is the crista galli located?


upper jaw that consists of two maxillary bones

infraorbital foramen

which foramen of the maxilla transmits the infraorbital nerve and blood vessels?

incisive foramen

foramen in the maxilla that caries branches of the right and left nasopalatine nerves, blood vessels and is marked by the incisive papilla

maxillary tuberosity

elevation on the posterior aspect of the maxilla that is perforated by the posterior superior alveolar foramen

nasopalatine nerve

which nerve passes through the incisive foramen?

horizontal plane

what divides the body into top and bottom parts?

frontal plane

what divides the body into anterior and posterior sections?

sagittal plane

what divides the body into left and right halves?

midsagittal plane

what divides the body into equal left and right halves?

anatomical position

body standing erect, feet together, and arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward


what are the basic units of structure of the body?


what is the term for specialization of cells?

cell membrane

what surrounds the cell body and serves two purposes: structural- separates the contents of cells from the surrounding environment, and semipermiability- allows nutrients to pass through and waste products to leave


what is the gel like fluid inside the cell that contains organelles?


what modify, store, and transport proteins and dispose of cellular wastes?


what is the control center of the cell that contains a set of chromosomes?


what is the powerhouse of the cell?


organelles that are associated with the manufacture of energy for cells


organelles of the cell that are associated with protein production

endoplasmic reticulum

membrane bound organelle, with channels that are either rough or smooth

gogli complex

organelle of the cell involved in protein segregation, packaging, and transport


bag of digestive juices that break down nutrients and unwanted parts of the cell


inner cellular junction between skin cells

intercellular junction

mechanical attachments between cells and nearby non cellular surfaces


cell division that occurs in phases and results in two daughter cells


process of reproductive cell production that ensures correct number of chromosomes


fertilized egg from union of ovum and sperm


action from one group of cells on another leading to developmental pathway in responding tissue


controlled cellular growth


change in embryonic cells to become quite distinct structurally and functionally


process of development of specific tissue morphology


attainment of full adult size as well as full adult form and function

ectodermal tissue

an embryological tissue the nervous system, skin, enamel, etc.

mesodermal tissue

an embryological tissue that gives rise to the connective tissues, cardiovascular tissues, cementum, dentin etc.

endodermal tissue

an embryological tissue that gives rise to the gut and related organs


what embryological tissue gives rise to the spinal cord?


what is the term used for a foreign substance that results in a birth defect?


what embryological tissue forms the dentin of the teeth?

ectodermal dysplasia

abnormal development of one or more structures from ectoderm, it has a heredity eitology, and presents with abnormalities of the teeth, skin, hair, nails, etc. typically thin and brittle skin, sparse blonde hair, mental issues, and a majority of teeth missing or having no enamel

fetal alcohol syndrome

teratogenic drug effect during the embryonic period, ethanol ingested by pregnant female crosses the placenta and can result in prenatal and postnatal growth deficiencies, mental issues, wide set eyes, and partially missing teeth


what tooth tissue is affected by ectodermal dysplasia?

tetracycline stain

intrinsic tooth stain from ingestion of the antibiotic tetracycline during an age where teeth are developing, either b y child or pregnant mother


the ingestion of too much fluoride, the fluoride enters the enamel throught the blood supply of developing teeth, and causes and intrinsic staining or mottled look to the enamel

cleft palate

developmental disturbance of upper lip from failure of the fusion of the primary and secondary palates, from the frontonasal process, medionasal process, and maxillary process

maxillary lateral incisors and cuspids

which teeth are affected by a cleft palate?

primitive mouth

what is the stomodeum?

mandibular arch

which brachial arch forms meckels cartilage?

1st arch

mandibular arch

2nd arch

hyoid arch

3rd arch

unnamed- (pharynx) arch

4th-6th arches

unnamed- (larynx) arch

hyoid arch

which arch gives rise to the (facial nerve) CN #7?

meckels cartilage

the template for the mandible

frontonasal, maxillary, and mandibular

which embryological tissues fuse together to form the face?


which embryological tissue forms the muscles of mastication and tongue?


how do most all facial structures develop?


consists of external ectoderm overlying endoderm, oropharyngeal membrane disintegrates, and access is available


opening in bone that is long, narrow and tubelike


opening in bone that is narrow and cleftlike


short, windowlike openings in bone


general term for any prominence on a bony surface


abrupt small prominence of bone


generally immoveable articulation in which bones are joined by fibrous tissue


large, often rough prominence on the surface of bone

glenoid fossa

what is the name of the bony socket that the condyle sits in?


what is a projection of bone called?


how many facial bones are there in the human skull?


how many cranial bones are there in the human skull?

sagittal suture

what is the name of the suture that joins the parietal bones?

frontal bone

what is the single cranial bone that forms the forehead and a portion of the orbits?

parietal bones

what paired cranial bones articulate with each other to make up most of the crown of the skull?

sphenoid bone

what is the single midline cranial bone with a body and several pairs of processes, also known as the butterfly or bat bone?

lateral ptergoid plate

a portion of the ptergoid process

medial ptergoid plate

which portion of the ptergoid plate does the hamulus project from?

maxillary molar periapical

which x-ray can you see the hamulus in?

foramen rotundum

foramen in the sphenoid bone that carries the trigeminal nerve or CN #5

foramen spinosum

foramen in the sphenoid bone for the middle meningeal artery

foramen ovale

foramen in the sphenoid bone for the mandibular division of the trigeminal or CN#5

incisive foramen

which foramen does the nasopalatine nerve enter to leave the palatal area?

maxillary nerve

what nerve passes through the foramen rotundum?

mental foramen

the foramen in between the apices of the 1st and 2nd premolars of the mandible

mandibular nerve

what nerve passes through the foramen ovale?

temporal bones

what paired cranial bones form the lateral walls and articulate with the mandible at the TMJ?

external acoustic meatus

what is the canal leading to the tympanic cavity?

tympanic portion of temporal bone

portion of the temporal bone that forms most of the external acoustic meatus- inner ear canal

chorda tympani nerve

which nerve passes through the petrotympanic fissure?

occipital bone

what is the single cranial bone in the most posterior portion of the skull?

occipital condyles

flattened areas of the occipital bone that articulate with the 1st cervical vertebra

1st cervical vertebra

what does the occipital bone articulate with?

mental protuberance

what is the origin of the mentalis muscle?

soft tissue of the chin

where does the mentalis muscle insert?

soft tissue around the mouth

where is the insertion and origin of the obicularis oris muscle?

zygomatic bone

where does the zygomaticus originate?

corner of lip

where does the zygomaticus muscle insert?


what action does the zygomaticus muscle help you do?

CN #5 (mandibular branch of trigeminal)

all muscles of mastication are innervated by what nerve?


what muscle of mastication is the most lateral?

zygomatic arch of zygomatic bone

where is the origin of the zygomatic muscle?

ramus and angle of mandible

where does the masseter muscle insert?

chewing, talking and elevation

what are the functions of the masseter muscle?


what is the largest muscle of mastication, as well as the powerhouse, whose functions are chewing, talking, and elevation of mandible


is the hypoglossal afferent, efferent, or both?

move mandible laterally and interpetrusive

what is the action of the lateral ptergoid muscle?

saliva production

what is the response of the salivary glands to parasympathetic stimulation?

facial or chorda tympani nerve

what nerve provides taste sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?


what is the first movement of the TMJ?

maxillary or buccal nerve

what nerve provides sensation to the cheek?

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