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234 terms

DHY Head & Neck Final Study Cards

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Mylohyoid line
line on the inner aspect of the mandible, where the mylohyoid muscle attches
sublingual fossa
fossa on the medial surface of the mandible, above the mylohyoid line, that contains the sublingual salivary glasnd
lingula
which is more superior; the lingula of the mandibular foramen?
mandibular foramen
foramen on the mandible that allows the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels to exit or enter the mandibular canal
lingula
a bony spine, which serves as an attachment for the sphenomandibular ligament associated with the temporomandibular joint
temporomandibular joint
articulation between the temporal bone and mandible that allows for movement of the mandible
glenoid fossa
where the condyle of the TMJ articulates
mandibular notch
the depression on the mandible located between the condyle and coronoid process
coronoid process
anterior superior projection of the ramus of the mandible
articular eminence
what is the anterior border of the TMJ?
hinge
initial movement of TMJ, condyle stays within the glenoid fossa
gliding
occurs between the disc and the articular eminence of the temporal bone in the upper synovial cavity, with the disc, plus the condyle moving forward or backwards, down and up the articular eminence
hinge
what is the first movement of the TMJ?
CN VII
facial nerve- both motor and sensory. serves the muscles of facial expression, etc. Exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen
buccinator
muscle of facial expression that forms a portion of the cheek
mentalis
muscle of facial expression in the mouth region that raises the chin
obicularis oris
muscle of facial expression that encircles the emouth
zygomaticus
muscle of facial expression in the mouth region that is used when smiling
mentalis
what muscle allows you to pout?
function of buccinator
it pushes the food bolus over the occlusal surface of posterior teeth
angle of the mouth
where does the buccinator insert?
buccinator
what is the only muscle of facial expression that really aids in chewing?
origin of buccinator
starts at the alveolar process of the maxilla and the ptergoid mandibular raphae
palatine bones
make up the posterior 1/3 of the hard palate
median palatine suture
midline suture between the palatine process of the maxilla and between the horizontal plates of the palatine bone
lacrimal bones
paired facial bones that help to form the medial wall of the orbit
nasolacrimal duct
duct formed at the junction of the lacrimal and maxillary bones that drains the lacrimal fluid or tears
lacrimal and maxillary bones
what does the nasolacrimal duct connect?
mandible
single facial bone that articulates bilaterally with the temporal bones at the TMJ
mental protuberance
mandibular bony prominence of the chin
external oblique line
creast on the lateral side of the mandible, where the ramus joins the body of the mandible
external oblique line
where does the ramus join the mandible?
ramus
plate of mandible that extends superiorly from the body of the mandible
greater palatine foramen
foramen in the palatine bone that carries the greater palatine nerve and blood vessels
genial tubercles
midline bony projections or the mental spines on the inner aspect of the mandibles medial surface
hypoglossal canal
which canal in the occipital bone carries the 12th cranial nerve?
ethmoid bone
what is the single midline cranial bone of the skull?
superior orbital fissure
what fissure of the sphenoid bone houses cranial nerve numbers III, IV, and VI, that deal with the eye?
ethmoid bone
which cranial bone helps to form the nasal septum?
olfactory nerves
which nerves deal with smell and lay atop the ethmoid bone?
crista galli
what serves as an attachment for layers covering the brain?
ethmoid bone
on which bone is the crista galli located?
maxilla
upper jaw that consists of two maxillary bones
infraorbital foramen
which foramen of the maxilla transmits the infraorbital nerve and blood vessels?
incisive foramen
foramen in the maxilla that caries branches of the right and left nasopalatine nerves, blood vessels and is marked by the incisive papilla
maxillary tuberosity
elevation on the posterior aspect of the maxilla that is perforated by the posterior superior alveolar foramen
nasopalatine nerve
which nerve passes through the incisive foramen?
horizontal plane
what divides the body into top and bottom parts?
frontal plane
what divides the body into anterior and posterior sections?
sagittal plane
what divides the body into left and right halves?
midsagittal plane
what divides the body into equal left and right halves?
anatomical position
body standing erect, feet together, and arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward
cells
what are the basic units of structure of the body?
differentiation
what is the term for specialization of cells?
cell membrane
what surrounds the cell body and serves two purposes: structural- separates the contents of cells from the surrounding environment, and semipermiability- allows nutrients to pass through and waste products to leave
cytoplasm
what is the gel like fluid inside the cell that contains organelles?
organelles
what modify, store, and transport proteins and dispose of cellular wastes?
nucleus
what is the control center of the cell that contains a set of chromosomes?
mitochondria
what is the powerhouse of the cell?
mitochondria
organelles that are associated with the manufacture of energy for cells
ribosomes
organelles of the cell that are associated with protein production
endoplasmic reticulum
membrane bound organelle, with channels that are either rough or smooth
gogli complex
organelle of the cell involved in protein segregation, packaging, and transport
lysomes
bag of digestive juices that break down nutrients and unwanted parts of the cell
desmosome
inner cellular junction between skin cells
intercellular junction
mechanical attachments between cells and nearby non cellular surfaces
mitosis
cell division that occurs in phases and results in two daughter cells
meiosis
process of reproductive cell production that ensures correct number of chromosomes
zygote
fertilized egg from union of ovum and sperm
induction
action from one group of cells on another leading to developmental pathway in responding tissue
proliferation
controlled cellular growth
differentiation
change in embryonic cells to become quite distinct structurally and functionally
morphogenesis
process of development of specific tissue morphology
maturation
attainment of full adult size as well as full adult form and function
ectodermal tissue
an embryological tissue the nervous system, skin, enamel, etc.
mesodermal tissue
an embryological tissue that gives rise to the connective tissues, cardiovascular tissues, cementum, dentin etc.
endodermal tissue
an embryological tissue that gives rise to the gut and related organs
ectoderm
what embryological tissue gives rise to the spinal cord?
teratogen
what is the term used for a foreign substance that results in a birth defect?
mesoderm
what embryological tissue forms the dentin of the teeth?
ectodermal dysplasia
abnormal development of one or more structures from ectoderm, it has a heredity eitology, and presents with abnormalities of the teeth, skin, hair, nails, etc. typically thin and brittle skin, sparse blonde hair, mental issues, and a majority of teeth missing or having no enamel
fetal alcohol syndrome
teratogenic drug effect during the embryonic period, ethanol ingested by pregnant female crosses the placenta and can result in prenatal and postnatal growth deficiencies, mental issues, wide set eyes, and partially missing teeth
enamel
what tooth tissue is affected by ectodermal dysplasia?
tetracycline stain
intrinsic tooth stain from ingestion of the antibiotic tetracycline during an age where teeth are developing, either b y child or pregnant mother
fluorosis
the ingestion of too much fluoride, the fluoride enters the enamel throught the blood supply of developing teeth, and causes and intrinsic staining or mottled look to the enamel
cleft palate
developmental disturbance of upper lip from failure of the fusion of the primary and secondary palates, from the frontonasal process, medionasal process, and maxillary process
maxillary lateral incisors and cuspids
which teeth are affected by a cleft palate?
primitive mouth
what is the stomodeum?
mandibular arch
which brachial arch forms meckels cartilage?
1st arch
mandibular arch
2nd arch
hyoid arch
3rd arch
unnamed- (pharynx) arch
4th-6th arches
unnamed- (larynx) arch
hyoid arch
which arch gives rise to the (facial nerve) CN #7?
meckels cartilage
the template for the mandible
frontonasal, maxillary, and mandibular
which embryological tissues fuse together to form the face?
mesoderm
which embryological tissue forms the muscles of mastication and tongue?
fusion
how do most all facial structures develop?
stomodeum
consists of external ectoderm overlying endoderm, oropharyngeal membrane disintegrates, and access is available
canal
opening in bone that is long, narrow and tubelike
fissure
opening in bone that is narrow and cleftlike
foramen
short, windowlike openings in bone
process
general term for any prominence on a bony surface
spine
abrupt small prominence of bone
suture
generally immoveable articulation in which bones are joined by fibrous tissue
tuberosity
large, often rough prominence on the surface of bone
glenoid fossa
what is the name of the bony socket that the condyle sits in?
process
what is a projection of bone called?
14
how many facial bones are there in the human skull?
8
how many cranial bones are there in the human skull?
sagittal suture
what is the name of the suture that joins the parietal bones?
frontal bone
what is the single cranial bone that forms the forehead and a portion of the orbits?
parietal bones
what paired cranial bones articulate with each other to make up most of the crown of the skull?
sphenoid bone
what is the single midline cranial bone with a body and several pairs of processes, also known as the butterfly or bat bone?
lateral ptergoid plate
a portion of the ptergoid process
medial ptergoid plate
which portion of the ptergoid plate does the hamulus project from?
maxillary molar periapical
which x-ray can you see the hamulus in?
foramen rotundum
foramen in the sphenoid bone that carries the trigeminal nerve or CN #5
foramen spinosum
foramen in the sphenoid bone for the middle meningeal artery
foramen ovale
foramen in the sphenoid bone for the mandibular division of the trigeminal or CN#5
incisive foramen
which foramen does the nasopalatine nerve enter to leave the palatal area?
maxillary nerve
what nerve passes through the foramen rotundum?
mental foramen
the foramen in between the apices of the 1st and 2nd premolars of the mandible
mandibular nerve
what nerve passes through the foramen ovale?
temporal bones
what paired cranial bones form the lateral walls and articulate with the mandible at the TMJ?
external acoustic meatus
what is the canal leading to the tympanic cavity?
tympanic portion of temporal bone
portion of the temporal bone that forms most of the external acoustic meatus- inner ear canal
chorda tympani nerve
which nerve passes through the petrotympanic fissure?
occipital bone
what is the single cranial bone in the most posterior portion of the skull?
occipital condyles
flattened areas of the occipital bone that articulate with the 1st cervical vertebra
1st cervical vertebra
what does the occipital bone articulate with?
mental protuberance
what is the origin of the mentalis muscle?
soft tissue of the chin
where does the mentalis muscle insert?
soft tissue around the mouth
where is the insertion and origin of the obicularis oris muscle?
zygomatic bone
where does the zygomaticus originate?
corner of lip
where does the zygomaticus muscle insert?
smiling
what action does the zygomaticus muscle help you do?
CN #5 (mandibular branch of trigeminal)
all muscles of mastication are innervated by what nerve?
masseter
what muscle of mastication is the most lateral?
zygomatic arch of zygomatic bone
where is the origin of the zygomatic muscle?
ramus and angle of mandible
where does the masseter muscle insert?
chewing, talking and elevation
what are the functions of the masseter muscle?
masseter
what is the largest muscle of mastication, as well as the powerhouse, whose functions are chewing, talking, and elevation of mandible
efferent
is the hypoglossal afferent, efferent, or both?
move mandible laterally and interpetrusive
what is the action of the lateral ptergoid muscle?
saliva production
what is the response of the salivary glands to parasympathetic stimulation?
facial or chorda tympani nerve
what nerve provides taste sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
hinge
what is the first movement of the TMJ?
maxillary or buccal nerve
what nerve provides sensation to the cheek?
inferior alveolar nerve
which nerve provides pain sensation to tooth #30?
mandibular nerve
what nerve makes the mandible move?
facial nerve (CN#7)
what nerve supplies motor fibers to the buccinator?
incisive nerve
what nerve provides sensation to tooth # 24?
temporal bone
where does the temporalis muscle originate?
on coronoid process
where does the temporalis muscle insert?
elevation and retraction of the mandible
what is the action of the temporalis muscle?
temporalis muscle
what shapes the coronoid processs?
lateral ptergoid process
where does the medial ptergoid muscle originate?
angle of mandible
where is the insertion of the medial ptergoid muscle?
elevation
what is the action of the medial ptergoid muscle?
ptergoid process
where does the lateral ptergoid muscle originate?
condyle
where is the insertion for the lateral ptergoid muscle?
move condyle
what is the action of the lateral ptergoid muscle?
mandible protrudes
what happens when both the right and left lateral ptergoid muscles contract?
intrinsic muscles of the tongue
what is responsible for shaping the tongue during speech, chewing, and swallowing?
extrinsic muscles of the tongue
what assists in movement and functioning of the tongue, sticking it out, moving it right or left etc.?
extrinsic
which group of muscles allow you to stick out your tongue?
artery
medium to large blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart
vein
larger vessel that takes blood to the heart
thrombus
a blood clot that is still lodged in the wall of a vessel
embolism
a blood clot that is moving within the bloodstream
thrombus
which typically happens first, thrombus or embolism?
common carotid artery
artery that supplies oxygen to the tissues of the face and brain
internal carotid artery
artery that supplies oxygen to the brain
external carotid artery
artery that supplies oxygen to the facial regions and everywhere except the brain
facial artery
an artery that supplies oxygen to most of the superficial tissues of the face
lingual artery
an artery that supplies oxygen to the floor of the mouth and tongue
maxillary artery
an artery that supplies oxygen to the deeper tissues of the face
inferior alveolar artery
and artery that supplies oxygen to the posterior teeth and periodontium of the mandible
terminal artery
the maxillary artery is a branch of which artery?
superficial temporal artery
name one terminal branch of the external carotid artery
ptergoid plexus
collection of veins around the ptergoid muscle and maxillary arteries that drain the deep face and alveolar veins into the maxillary vein
external jugular vein
vein that forms the posterior division of the retromandibular vein
immediate swelling and bruise from pooling blood
what is the side effects of piercing the ptergoid plexus while injecting?
central nervous system
division of the nervous system that consists of the spinal cord and brain
peripheral nervous system
division of the nervous system that consists of the afferent and efferent nervous system
autonomic nervous system
sub division of the efferent division of the PNS, that operates without conscious control and is further divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight response, autonomic- no control over responses to frightful or stressful stimuli; dry mouth, constricted pupils, increased heart rate, decrease in GI and urinary systems, muscles dilate etc.
parasympathetic nervous system
(paradise) relaxed, normal pupils, working GI and urinary systems, resting heart, salivary glands working etc.
somatic nervous system
the nerves that cause the result in the effect that you determine, or have control over, flexing muscles, walking, sticking out tongue, etc.
produce saliva
what happens to the salivary glands during parasympathetic response?
CNS
are spinal nerves CNS or PNS?
cranial nerves
12 pair of nerves that extend directly from the brain
CN V
trigeminal nerve (dental nerve), largest cranial nerve
maxillary nerve
V2, midsized branch of CN V, that is completely sensory, carries sensation to the maxillary teeth, lip, cheek, palate, periodontium, and enters the foramen rotundum.
anterior superior alveolar nerve
ASA- L & R, supplies anterior teeth, innervates pulp, perio, and buccal soft tissues, not palate, some people have a cross over, feeds into the Infraorbital maxillary branch, to trigeminal
middle superior alveolar nerve
MSA-, L7R, supplies 1st and 2nd premolars, and mesiobuccal root of the 1st molars, pulp, perio, & buccal mucosa. travels from teeth, to MSA, to infraorbital maxillary branch, to trigeminal
posterior superior alveolar nerve
PSA- L& R, supplies the rest of the 1st molar as well as the 2nd and 3rd molars, pulp, perio, and buccal tissues. it feeds up maxillary branch to trigeminal
incisive foramen
what foramen does the nasopalatine nerve exit?
maxillary premolars, and mesiobuccal root of the 1st molar
what teeth do the MSA supply?
inferior alveolar nerve
supplies mandibular posterior teeth, pulp, and perio, it travels inside the mandibular canal, and exits at the mandibular foramen
incisive nerve
supplies to the mandibular anterior teeth and perio, it feeds into IAN, to V3, to CN V, starts at the mental foramen
mental nerve
supplies the mandibular lip and chin area, stays outside of the mandibular bone, it feeds into the mental foramen, to IAN, to Alveolar canal, to CN V.
lingual nerve
Sensory, travels beside the Inferior Alveolar Nerve until it enters the Mand. bone, supplies pain sensation to the tongue.
buccal nerve
sensory, exits skull and stays in soft tissue, not bone. Supplies the inside of the cheek area.
both
is the mandibular nerve afferent of efferent or both?
mental nerve
what nerve exits the mental foramen?
posterior mandibular teeth and pulpal tissues
what does the IAN serve?
chorda tympani nerve
supplies taste sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
glossopharyngeal nerve
CN # IX, supplies taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, it is parasymapthetic to the parotid
secrete saliva
does the glossopharyngeal nerve cause the parotid to secrete or retain saliva?
both
is the glossopharyngeal nerve afferent, efferent, or both?
hypoglossal nerve
CN # XII, motor nerve, exits from hypoglossal canal, supplies extrinsic muscles of the tongue.
efferent
is the hypoglossal afferent, efferent, of both?
systemic circulation
whole body circulation
pulmonary circulation
circulation within the heart, can be broken down into R-lungs, and L-Body circulation
chambers of the heart
left atrium, right atrium, left ventricle, left ventricle
valves of the heart
tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve, and mitral valve
tricuspid valve
which valve is on the right side of the heart?
circulation of blood through the heart
deoxygenated blood comes back to the heart from the body via the superior vena cava, into the right atrium, pumped through the tricuspid valve, to the right ventricle, through the pulmonary valve into pulmonary atrery, to the lungs, lungs then oxygenate the blood and pump it back into the heart from the pulmonary veins, into the left ventricle, through aortic valve, out to the aorts to take to the rest of the body
afferent nerve
sensory nerve that carries information from the periphery of the body to the brain or spinal cord
efferent nerve
motor nerve that carries information away from the brain or spinal cord to the periphery of the body
afferent
CN I- olfactory nerve, afferent of efferent or both?
afferent
CN II- optic nerve, afferent, efferent or both?
efferent
CN III- oculomotor nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
efferent
CN IV- Trochlear nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
both
CN V- Trigeminal nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
efferent
CN VI- Abducens nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
both
CN VII- Facial nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
afferent
CN VIII- Vestibulocochlear nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
both
CN IX- Glossopharyngeal nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
both
CN X- Vagus nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
efferent
CN XI- Accessory nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?
efferent
CN XII- Hypoglossal nerve, afferent, efferent, or both?