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History Chapter 27
Terms in this set (18)
Andrew Carnegie What's right in America?
There was progress everywhere. Railroads linked towns and cities across the nation. The increased ease of delivering goods by rail had nourished countless new industries. New industries meant more jobs for a growing nation. With immigrants pouring into the country, the population of the US tripled between 1850 and 1900. Every new factory or mill created jobs for the newcomers.
Andrew Carnegie Contributions to America's Prosperity
Made a huge fortune in the steel industry and Carnegie Steel alone employed more than 20,000 workers, many of them immigrants. The nation's new industries turned out a wealth of new products at prices ordinary Americans could afford.
John D. Rockefeller What's right in America?
Proud to be "captain of industry" and he said that money-making had never been his goal but he had an ambition to build. He hoped in the future more people of wealth will use their fortunes for the good of others.
John D. Rockefeller Contributions to America's Prosperity
Rockefeller used his own fortune to fund universities, medical research, the arts, and education for all. During his lifetime, he contributed about $182 million to the Rockefeller Foundation, a charitable organization he established to promote "the well-being of mankind."
Theodore Roosevelt What's wrong in America?
Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act to outlaw any form of business monopoly but for years the law was not enforced. It got its first real test only after Theodore Roosevelt became president.
Theodore Roosevelt Contributions to America's Prosperity
He came into the office with great energy and he attacked business monopoly. He went after a rail company and shortly after went after about 44 other companies.
Robert La Follette What's wrong in America?
Political machines, or groups run by party bosses, controlled local and state governments. To make sure that their candidates were elected, corrupt bosses were known to bribe voters and "stuff" ballot boxes with fake votes. The bosses, not the people, chose each party's candidates for office.
Robert La Follette Contributions to America's Prosperity
When La Follete won the Wisconson election as governor in 1900. Once elected, he pushed for reforms that put the people in charge of politics. Wisconsin adopted the direct primary, which allowed party members, not bosses to choose party candidates. By 1916, over half of the states had adopted this idea. Three other reforms that put political power in the hands of the people included the initiative (allowed citizens to enact laws by a popular vote.), the referendum (allowed voters to overturn an existing law.), and the recall (allowed voters to remove an elected official from office.)
Mother Jones What's wrong in America?
In the early 1900's, more than 1 million children under the age of 16 worked in mines and factories for up to 13 hours a day.
Mother Jones Contributions to America's Prosperity
By 1903, 43 states had passed laws that outlawed the hiring of children. Her ideas also contributed to working laws in other states. In 1903, Oregon passed a law that limited women to a ten-hour workday. Maryland set up a program to assist workers who had been injured on the job. Pregnant women were also allowed to take maternity leaves.
John Muir What's wrong in America?
Muir was mad at the way humans were treating the environment. Loggers were felling Yosemite's ancient redwood trees and herds of sheep were stripping its meadows and hillsides bare. Muir said "To let sheep trample so divinely find a place seems barbarous!" Rapid industrial growth and urbanization were causing massive environmental changes. Loggers were felling the forests at an alarming rate, Miners were scarring mountains and polluting rivers, and many species of animals were near extinction or already gone forever.
John Muir Contributions to America's Prosperity
Muir wanted to preserve wonders like Yosemite in their natural state. He began publishing articles urging the passage of laws to protect wildernesses. By 1890, his writings had attracted enough support to convince Congress to create Yosemite National Park. Roosevelt helped his cause by prohibiting logging and ranching in Yosemite and national parks. The amount of national parks doubles and the amount of land set aside as national forest increased from 47 million to 195 million acres.
W.E.B Du Bois What's wrong in America?
Everywhere he looked, Du Bois saw the terrible effects of racism on African Americans. In the South, Jim Crow laws segregated schools, trains, parks, and other public places. These laws also banned blacks from voting in both states. Blacks in the North were not legally segregated, but they still faced discrimination, particularly in housing and jobs.
W.E.B Du Bois Contributions to America's Prosperity
In 1905, Du Bois gathered influential African Americans at Niagara Falls to push directly for voting rights. He wanted to see an end to discrimination, or unfair treatment based on race.
Upton Sinclair What's wrong in America?
Upton Sinclair wrote a novel about the horrors of slavery and also a book about factory workers who were treated like slaves. He also worked about the meatpacking plants in great detail. He told of sick animals being processed into food. He wrote The Jungle and Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Upton Sinclair Contributions to America's Prosperity
After reading The Jungle President Roosevelt ordered an investigation of the meatpacking industry. When his investigators confirmed that conditions were as bad as Sinclair had claimed, Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act. This set health standards for meatpacking and ordered a federal inspection of meat.Later, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act which also required manufacturers to use safe ingredients under the law.
Alice Paul What's wrong in America?
Women had won their right for suffrage but in some other places, the rights seemed stalled.
Alice Paul Contributions to America's Prosperity
Alice became known as the National Woman's party in 1916. Her and her followers were determined to win the vote by a constitutional amendment. In order for this to happen, she ordered for a parade in Washington D.C., where more than 5,000 women marched in order to achieve their right to vote. By 1918, 12 states allowed women to vote but the amendment to let them vote did not progress much. Some women protested and many were arrested for blocking the sidewalk. In jail, Paul and others went on a hunger strike. The public became enraged when the jailers tried to force feed the women and they were set free. Less than two months after this, the suffrage amendment was approved by the House of Representatives.
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