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Clinical: Chapter 43
Terms in this set (152)
inflammation of a joint
pertaining to a joint
fluid-filled, saclike membranes which provide cushioning and allows frictionless motion between 2 tissues
a rubbery, smooth, somewhat elastic connective tissue covering the ends of bones
pertaining to the neck region containing 7 vertebrae
anti-inflammatory hormones, natural or synthetic
a dry, crackling sound or sensation
the midportion of a long bone; it contains the medullary cavity
the end of a long bone; it contains the growth plates
Growth plates are called _____.
an instrument for measuring the degrees of motion in a joint
a tissue reaction to trauma or disease including redness, heat, swelling, and pain
relating to the normal convex curvature of the thoracic spine
tough connective tissue bands which hold joints together by attaching to the bones on either side of the joint
relating to the normal concave curvature of the cervical and lumbar spines
relating to the lower back region containing 5 vertebrae
dislocation of a bone from its normal anatomic location
an indefinite feeling of debility or lack of health, often indicative of or accompanying the onset of an illness
the inner portion of the diaphysis; it contains the bone marrow
the thin, highly innervated, membranous covering of a bone
an artificial replacement for a body part
the extent of movement possible in a joint
range of motion (ROM)
the return to correct anatomic position
an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
muscle containing fibers divided by bands of cross stripes because of overlapping myofilaments
a clear fluid found in joint cavities which facilitates smooth movements and nourishes joint structures
tough bands of connective tissue connecting muscle to bone
diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of the musculoskeletal system and deals primarily with the bones
specialists in treating inflammatory joint disorders
use manual adjusting procedures to correct subluxations or misalignments of the spine to allow maximum nerve function, thus facilitating the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and prevent disease
The musculoskeletal system includes:
- skeletal muscles
- supportive connective tissues (cartilage, tendons, and ligaments)
The 5 general functions of the musculoskeletal system are:
1) protection of internal organs
2) support for standing erect
4) hemopoietic function
5) storage of the minerals Ca and P in the bones
More than _____ muscles attach to the human skeleton.
Types of muscles include:
- skeletal (voluntary, striated)
- cardiac (involuntary, striated)
- smooth (involuntary)
The human skeleton is composed of _____ bones.
Bones are characterized by shape, including:
reduces the angle of the joint and brings the 2 bones closer together
the opposite of flexion; increases the angle or distance between 2 bones or parts of the body
extension 180 degrees (e.g. the neck is extended backwards or the toes are pointed downward)
moving the body part away from the midline or median plane of the body
the opposite of abduction; moving the body part toward the midline of the body
moving a bone around its central axis; common in ball-and-socket joints
circular movement of a limb; a combination of abduction, adduction, extension, and flexion
moving the instep of the foot up and dorsally, reducing the angle between the foot and the leg
the toe-down movement of the foot at the ankle; increases the angle of the joint
turning the side of the foot laterally, or outward
the opposite of eversion; turning the sole of the foot medially, or inward
rotation of the forearm, turning the palm of the hand downward, or posteriorly
the opposite of pronation; rotation of the forearem, turning the palm of the hand upward, or anteriorly
The 2 main types of joints are:
where bones are joined with fibrous cartilage and are immovable
freely moveable, because the adjacent ends of 2 bones are covered with cartilage and are enclosed in a joint cavity containing a viscous, slippery fluid
The joints of the skull are known as _____.
Other types of joints include:
Examples of hinge joints include:
the elbow and knee
Examples of gliding joints include:
the wrist and foot
Examples of ball-and-socket joints include:
the shoulder and hip
Methods of maintaining musculoskeletal health include:
- dietary intake of foods rich in Ca and vitamin D
- avoid smoking
- weight-bearing exercise
Characteristics of fibromyalgia:
- widespread connective tissue and muscular pain
- often includes severe fatigue
T/F: Fibromyalgia is seen more frequently in men than women.
False, it is seen more frequently in women
Other conditions often associated with fibromyalgia include:
- sleep disorders
- IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)
- chronic headaches
- TMJ problems
How is fibromyalgia diagnosed?
by eliminating other possible causes for symptoms and finding 11/18 specific points to be extremely tender to palpation
sex-linked inherited disorder; occurs when muscle fibers are replaced with adipose tissue
idiopathic autoimmune disorder which causes defect at the NMJ
a wrenching or twisting of a joint in an abnormal plan of motion or beyond its normal ROM which results in stretching and/or tearing of a ligament
overstretching of a muscle or tendon; can be caused by partial or complete tear of the tissue away from the bone
occur spontaneously and may persist for hours
Patients with nighttime leg twitching are diagnosed with _____.
periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS)
broken bone is contained with skin intact
skin is broken above the fracture, which therefore is open to the external environment, creating the potential for infection
fracture extends along the length of the bone
break is caused by direct force applied perpendicular to a bone; fracture runs across the bone
break is caused by a twisting force with an upward thrust; fracture ends are short and run at an oblique angle across the bone
break is caused by compression or angulation forces in the long bones of children under age 10; because of its softness, the bone is cracked on one side and intact on the other side
break is caused by severe, direct force, which creates a fracture with multiple fragments
break is caused by strong forces driving bone fragments together
break results from weakening of the bones by disease, as in osteoporosis or sarcomas
bone ends remain in alignment
bone ends are moved out of alignment
break is caused by a twisting or rotary force, which results in long, sharp, pointed bone ends; suspicious as a child abuse injury
break is caused by transmitted forces which drive bones together
break is caused by forceful contraction of a muscle against resistance, and a bone fragment tears at the site of muscle insertion
bone fragments of the skull are driven inward
Characteristics of restless leg syndrome (RLG):
unpleasant sensations, such as tingling, aching, and twitching of the legs
Treatment for RLG is _____.
softening of bones due to an inability to absorb fat and vitamin D or defective kidney function
Osteomalacia in children is called _____.
progressive loss of bone density leading to fractures
Risk factors for developing osteoporosis include:
- family history
- low dietary Ca intake
- excessive caffeine intake
- alcohol abuse
- reduced exposure to estrogen
- certain medications (chemotherapy)
Who is most at risk for developing osteoporosis?
postmenopausal women over 50
Diagnosis option for osteoporosis include:
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
Mild bone loss is known as _____.
inability to absorb fat
Lordosis is otherwise known as _____.
Kyphosis is otherwise known as _____.
A herniated disk occurs when:
the the nucleus of an intervertebral disk protrudes
Gout is a metabolic disorder involving overproduction of improper elimination of _____.
Uric acid is a waste product formed from the breakdown of _____.
Gout may be referred to as _____.
Home remedy which may alleviate a gout attack by reducing uric acid:
occurs after some type of systemic or local infection in some other part of the body or after a joint has been violated by trauma or surgery
Infectious arthritis is commonly caused by:
The 3 main types of lupus are:
1) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
2) discoid lupus erythematosus
3) drug-induced lupus
Cardinal sign of SLE:
a butterfly-shaped rash across the nose and cheeks
Lyme disease is an infection caused by the bacteria _____, transmitted by _____.
Borrelia burgdorferi, a tick bite
most common cause of pain in shoulder and elbow due to calcium deposits in bursae
inflammation of joint bursae followed by repetitive movement or prolonged exposure
Observing the patient for abnormalities while walking is referred to as:
permanent inability to extend the joint beyond a certain fixed position
In _____ ROM assessment or exercise, the patient provides and controls the movement.
In _____ ROM assessment or exercise, the therapist provides and controls the movement.
Procedure of conducting an assessment of grip strength using a BP cuff:
- roll up BP cuff and have patient hold it in one hand
- inflate the cuff to 20 mmHg
- ask the patient to squeeze the cuff as tightly as possible
A normal grip registers above _____.
evaluates areas of bone growth, bone tumors, and other bone disease patterns
assesses bone density used in the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan
visualizes soft tissue such as tumors, lesions, or some spine injuries
computed tomography (CT) scan
evaluates muscle response to stimulus
electromyography and nerve conduction velocity study
identify cancerous tumors and other neoplasms and pathogens
biopsies of bone and muscle
If a patient is having an MRI performed, it is important to ask the patient to remove:
any type of metal jewelry or patches
a technique for creating deep tissue heat through the use of a high-frequency current, ultrasonic waves, or microwave radiation
To help decrease pain and inflammation and to help inhibit additional swelling, _____ should always be used immediately after an injury.
After 48 hours, _____ promotes circulation and healing, decreases swelling, and causes soft tissue relaxation.
Contraindications for heat application include:
- in patients with severe circulatory problems
- over blisters from previous burns
- over areas with encapsulated pus
- over scar tissue
- in body areas with cancerous tumors
- over inflamed skin
- over any metal jewelery or metal implants
Types of heat modalities:
paraffin baths and hot water bottles
Other types of therapeutic modalities include:
- therapeutic ultrasonography
- massage and exercise
- electrical muscle stimulation (TENS)
Heat application during pregnancy is not recommended because it can cause:
Paraffin is kept on for _____.
20 - 30 minutes
Recommendations for hot water bottle use include:
- do not exceed 125 degrees Fahrenheit
- fill only half-full for better conformity
- leave on children for 15 minutes and 20 - 30 minutes for adults
Ultrasound waves cause:
tissue to vibrate, generating heat as they penetrate
The most common assistive devices are:
When walking, canes should be positioned _____ beside and _____ ahead.
6 inches, 12 inches
Key points for the use of crutches include:
- arm rest should be 1 to 1 1/2 inches below the armpit
- elbow should be bent at a 30 degree angle
Key points for the use of walkers include:
- the top of the walker should align with the hips
- the walker should be positioned 6 inches ahead
- walk with the weak leg first, then strong
- do not use on stairs
Types of casts include:
- plastic synthetic
Characteristics of fiberglass casts:
an excessive backward curvature of the thoracic spine
an abnormal or excessive curve toward the front of the body in the thoracic or lumbar region
pertaining to the chest
wasting away, decreasing in size
T/F: The tibia is distal to the femur.
T/F: The patella is superior to the metacarpals.
T/F: The radius is lateral to the ulna.
T/F: The tibia is medial to the fibula.
T/F: The metatarsals are inferior to the tarsals.
T/F: The biceps are superior to the deltoid.
T/F: The trapezius is inferior to the gluteus medius.
T/F: The vastus lateralis is a posterior muscle.
T/F: The triceps are an anterior muscle group.
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