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20 terms

Sociology 1101 - Test 1A Final Review

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B. Live spread apart in rural areas
Looking at the United States, high suicide rates are typical of states in which people:
a. live densely packed in cities
b. live spread apart in rural areas
c. have higher incomes
d. live in a warmer climate
B. Keeping young people out of the labor force, which may not have jobs for them
Which of the following is the best example of a latent (unintended, unnoticed, and hidden) function of going to college?
a. providing skills needed for later jobs
b. keeping young people out of the labor force, which may not have jobs for them
c. gaining the knowledge required for them to be an active and thoughtful citizen
d. giving young people experience living on their own
B. Social-conflict approach
The "framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change" is the:
a. structural-functional approach
b. social-conflict approach
c. symbolic-interaction approach
d. all of the above are correct
B. Ignores how structural factors such as class affect people's experiences
A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that:
a. calls attention to major social institutions
b. ignores how structural factors such as class affect people's experiences
c. paints a very positive picture of society
d. all of the above are true
A. A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
Science can be defined as:
a. a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
b. belief based on faith in ultimate truth
c. belief based on a society's traditions
d. a logical system that bases truth on political goals
C. A variable
Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part of a survey. As you record the data, you are using the concept "age" as:
a. a theory
b. a hypothesis
c. a variable
d. an axiom
A. Operationalization
What process involves deciding exactly what is to be measured when assigning value to a variable?
a. operationalization
b. reliability
c. conceptualization
d. validity
D. Whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results
In the process of measurement, reliabilty refers to:
a. whether you are really measuring what you want to measure
b. how dependable the researcher is
c. whether or not everyone agrees with the study's results
d. whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results
C. Two different questions are being asked, so that a simple "yes" or "no" will distort the subject's actual opinion
From a research point of view, what is the problem with the question, "Do you think that the government should spend less for defense and more for health care?"
a. most people will have no opinion on these issues
b. the question my spark an emotional response
c. two different questions are being asked, so that a simple "yes" or "no" will distort the subject's actual opinion
d. the question asks for a personal opinion, which involves a value judgment
A. Turning theories into hypotheses suitable for testing
Deductive logical thought involves:
a. turning theories into hypotheses suitable for testing
b. selecting a research method based on available resources
c. doing research about the past
d. transforming specific observations into general theory
C. Participant observation
Which sociological research method provides the best chance to understand social behavior in a natural setting?
a. the experiment
b. the survey
c. participant observation
d. secondary analysis
D. All of the above are correct
Which of the following is a way in which people can mislead others with statistics?
a. people select the data they present
b. people interpret the data to lead their readers to a desired conclusion
c. people use graphs to "spin" the truth
d. all of the above are correct
D. Values
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:
a. folkways
b. norms
c. mores
d. values
D. Are sometimes in conflict with one another
Key values of U.S. culture:
a. always fit together easily
b. change quickly, even from year to year
c. are shared by absolutely everyone in a society
d. are sometimes in conflict with one another
A. Mores; folkways
____________ distinguish between right and wrong; ____________ distinguish between right and rude
a. mores; folkways
b. taboos; mores
c. folkways; mores
d. prescriptive norms; proscriptive norms
C. Cultural patterns that set off a part of a society's population
Subculture refers to:
a. a part of the population lacking culture
b. people who embrace popular culture
c. cultural patterns that set off a part of a scoiety's population
d. people who embrace high culture
D. Some cultural elements change more quickly than others
The term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that:
a. the rate of cultural change has been slowing
b. some socities advance faster than others do
c. some people are more cultured than others
d. some cultural elements change more quickly than others
D. Diffusion
The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called:
a. immigration
b. cultural transmission
c. popular culture
d. diffusion
B. Cultural relativism
The practice of understanding another culture on its own terms and using its own standards is called:
a. ethnocentrism (judging another culture by our standards)
b. cultural relativism (judging a country by its own terms)
c. cultural diffusion (spreading of a culture)
d. cultural integration
D. Are part of every known culture
Cultural universals are elements of culture that:
a. have always been part of U.S. culture
b. have diffused from the United States to other countries
c. have come to the United States from elsewhere
d. are part of every known culture