25 terms

Knowlege, Logical Arguments, Argumenents in Writting

-empiricle (before you start), and then you see patterns in the data after
-theory based on data
-can be circular
-prior belief or theory, application of belief
-prefered in S.S.
-theory based on theory
-can get seperated from reality
-dataa based on observation or experiment
-call to action, telling you what to do
-politicians are this
-objective statement of the facts, not taking a side
-can be bias if you just report the facts that you want
-academics should be positive
a statement that does not follow logically from evidence
ad hominem
-attack the persons characterisics or guild by assosication, can be positive things too
red herring
argument no relevent to your topic to try to throw people off
-opposite of non sequitur
faulty or hasty generalizations
When a reasoner draws a GENERAL conclusion from an insufficient number of INSTANCES of that general statement.
false analogy
the assumption that because two things are alike in some ways they must be alike in other ways, the more different the things are the more likely this occurs
either or fallacy, straw person, slippery slope
-make other answers look so bad that your answer is the only one
-narrowed down to two answers
false cause
-assume causation when there is non
-post hoc ergo prop
circular reasoning
-arguing by assertion
-if i say it enough times people will belive me
apeal to authority
-if an important/respected/famous person says it then we should do it
-shorter or fewer explanations are more parsimonious than many or complex explanations
falsifiable hypothesis
Hypothesis that is capable of being disproven. Only falsifiable hypotheses and theories are scientific.
-an idea that has not been defined, many multilpe meanings to different people
conceptual definition
-narrowing down of an idea to a more specific idea
do the actual measurements correspond to the concepts in the theories
Necessary Causal Condition
X is necessary for Y
-never see Y unless X occurs
Sufficient Causal Condition
if X occurs, Y must occur
-Y can also occur w/o the presence of X
logic of inference
-well defined concepts (valid)
-theory explaining the relationship between concepts that make sense
-theory has or seems likely to have accuracy/predictive power
-theory has appropriate chronological sequence
spurious relationship
X-->Y...but really Z causes Y
individualistic fallacy
Results when inferences about groups, societies, or nations are drawn directly from evidence gathered about individuals. Example: assuming a country is democratic because its citizens have a high percentage of democratic values.
ecological fallacy
Erroneously basing conclusions about individuals solely on the observation of groups