Horses have a small stomach (8-14 litres), the feed doubles in size by the time it reaches the stomach, digestion is most efficient when stomach is two thirds full, paristalsis requires reasonably constant supply of food.
Keep to the same schedule
Horses are creatures of habit, an dthrive off of a schedule.
Introduce change gradually
prevent indigestion which causes colic, and allows diestive system to adjust to change.
Feed adequate roughage
It is the base and bulk of diet, keeps digestive system functioning properly and roughage is two thirds of the diet.
Do not work immediatly after feeding
Horses cannot digest while working, a full stomach inhibits breathing by preventing the diaphragm from working properly, and the lungs from expanding.
Feed only good quality forage
Fussy feeders, and relish on only the best, and musty, dusty or mouldy hay can cause colic
Feed something succulent every day
Compensates for the lack of grass in the diet. (Ex. grass, carrots, apples etc.)
List the six basic nutrients and give an example of each
essential part of every cell, circulates blood and transferrs nutrients around the body, expels waste, built in heating and cooling system, prevents dehydration.
(carbs) how do plants make carbs
(carbs) what are starches and sugars used for
(carbs) what is cellulose
plant fibre. Necessary for digestion
What do carbs do in the body
regulate body temp, promotes growth and body development.
(protein) What are they for
Growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues. Building blocks of cells.
(fats)What do they do
Procuce extra energy especially when carbs are lacking. Keeps skin and coat in good condition. Slow acting energy. Small amounts used in digestion, especially of vitamins.
(vitamins) What are they for
Vital body functions, and normal growth
(vitamins) What are they
(minerals) zWhat are they for
build and maintain tissue, especially bones. Act as triggers for body functions.
(minerals)What are they
How should you feed a sick horse
nutritious, but easy to digest, laxative (bran mash), little and often, remove uneaten food, fresh clean water, not much concentrates, soak feed if respiratory issues, palatable foods to stimulate apetite
Name the parts of the digestive system
mouth, incisors, tongue, molars, salivary gland, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, large intestine, cecum, large colon, small colon, rectum, anus, pancreas, liver.
pushes food back
How many molars
How many salivary glands, names and where
3. Parotid (largest) located near the poll, Submaxillary - located in the jaw and the Sublingual - located under the tongue
What is saliva for
essesntial for movement through the tract, as well as early break down of carbs.
area between hard palate and the opening to the esophagus.
flap that covers the opening to the windpipe during swallowing
long muscular tube that forces food to the stomach during paristalsis.
very small muscular sack, where food is mixed with enzymes and HCl for digestion.
What enzymes work to break down food in the stomach
Pepsin, renin and lipase.
Why is the horse prone to getting gastric ulcers if the stomach is not two thirds full
constantly produces acid, no matter how full or empty it is.
Controls the flow of food out of the stomach and into the small intestine.
What 3 parts is the small intestine broken up into
Duodenum, jejunum and illeum
How long is the small intestine
50 to 70ft
What happens in the small intestine
nutrients, especially proteins, soluble carbs, fats an dminerals are broken down and absorbed into the bloodstream.
What is the main part of the small intestine
What does the pancreas produce
pancreatic juices (very alkaline) to counter stomach acid. Also produces insulin.
What does insulin do
controls blood sugar levels
What do pancreatic juices contain
trypsin, amylase and bile.
What does the liver do
converts amino acids to protein, stores glycogen and regulates nutrients carried in blood, produces bile (a digestive fluid)
Where do the digestive juices get secreted
Most proteins are absorbed into the blood stream here
How long is the large intestine
large pouch (water gut) where bacteria ferments plant fibre and cellulose to produce fat soluble vitamins and fatty acids.
Why can colic be the result of sudden diet changes
The bacteria in the cecum is very sensitive to change
Where are remaining nutrients broken down and absorbed
what happens in the small colon
water and electrolytes are absorbed and the remaining solid waste in sormed into manure balls.
give 6 rules of good feeding
1. Clean fresh water available at all times 2. Feed little and often 3. Feed according to work, temperament and condition 4. Keep same feeding hours each day 5. Do not work hard immediately after feeding 6. Feed adequate roughage 7. Introduce changes to feed gradually 8. Feed clean, good-quality forage 9. Feed something succulent every day
What is the general rule of thumb for feed rations
• Rule of Thumb 2-3 pounds feed per 100 pounds weight. That is total ration including roughage and concentrates.
What are 5 factors which affect how much to feed your horse
1. Stabled vs. at grass 2. Size 3. Age 4. Temperament 5. Work 6. Season of year 7. What is available
define Maintenance ration
: keep horse the same
Define conditioning ration
develop fitness energy
What changes would you make to rations on a day of rest
reduce grain, increase roughage
Define roughing off
off: preparing for long time off
How would you change feeding for a sick horse
: nutritious but easy to digest
How much water does the average horse drink
• Average horse drinks 27-54 litres (6-12 gallons) per day. More in hot weather
What is the reason to Feed little Often
• Stomach is small at 8-14 litres (1 ¾ to 3 gallons) size of football • Digestion most efficient when stomach is 2/3 full • Peristalsis (muscular contraction moving food along) works best when there is a relatively constant supply of food.
How would you change feed rations if work is increased
• as exercise and work increase, the concentrates must be increased to provide energy and build up muscle
How would you change feed rations if work is decreased
• if work is decreased concentrates must be reduced and roughage increased to compensate
What are some factor that may effect what a horse is being fed
1. Age: digestion in older horses, growth in younger horses 2. Brood Mares: pregnant and nursing need extra concentrates, vitamins and minerals 3. Type (e.g., thoroughbred vs. quarterhorse): some horses need more palatable food while others thrive on less rich diet 4. Climate: lots of the diet is used to keep body temperature constant 5. Company: other horses may bully preventing eating and resting or the opposite, a horse may be lonely and stop eating 6. Illness: may require a special diet 7. Worms: most likely cause of poor condition 8. Teeth: may need attention - ability to chew 9. Stable Vices: Windsucking and cribbing can interfer with digestion. Weaving and box walking waste energy.
• roughage is hay or grass (think how it feels rough)
what is a benefit of adding roughage( chaff or bran) to concentrates
may help horse chew concentrates better digestion works better if food properly chewed
Why should you introduce changes to feed gradually
• sudden changes can cause indigestion • digestive system needs time to adjust to new foods • specific microbes(bacteria) are needed to digest each different kind of feed in the large intestine. It takes awhile for the large intestine to switch to the new kind of microbes needed for the new food. Failure to get the correct bacteria incomplete digestion and possible colic
why is it important to feed a succulent every day
• stabled horses need succulent food to compensate for the lack of grass. • if possible graze in hand for ten minutes or so daily • succulents include: green food, carrots, apples, grass etc.
A horse's body is made of mostly what substance
water has several roles/uses in the horse's body such as quenching thirst . Name 3 more
2. Assist body to get nutrition from food blood circulation is required for digestion keep temperature lower when necessary (cooling system) 5. Aids excretion (urine) 6. Essential part of every cell and fluids including blood 7. Blood circulation carries nutrients to cells and carries waste away
what are the main objectives of feeding
R.E.D. (Repair Energy Development) 1. Provide material for repair or body wastes and to put flesh on horse 2. For development 3. To supply energy
name 3 types of hay
legume Oat hay grass leaf seed hay orchard silage
what are the 6 nutrient types or groups
Water vitamins Carbohydrates Proteins minerals Fatty Acids/Lipids an be remembered by saying What Can People From Victoria Make?
what is the function of water in a horse's body
life, vital functions, cells
what is the function of carbohydrates in a horse's body.
Starches and sugars for energy. Cellulose for digestion
what is the function of Proteins in a horse's body
growth, repair and maintenance. - Building blocks of cell
what is the function of Fatty Acids/Lipids in a horse's body
Extra energy when carbohydrates not high enough. Digestion of vitamins
what is the function of Vitamins in a horse's body
Vital body functions
what is the function of Minerals in a horse's body
Build and maintain tissue (bones). Triggers for body functions
give an example of Minerals
Hay, grain, salt, supplements
give an example of Vitamins
Hay, grain, sunlight, supplements
give an example of Fatty Acids/Lipids
Corn oil, wheat-germ oil
give an example of Proteins
Oilseed meals, oats, barley, corn, alfalfa
give an example of Carbohydrates
Grass, hay, grain. In plants from photosynthesis
give an example of water
name the 2 types of vitamins
: Fat Soluble and Water Soluble
name 4 of the 6 major minerals
salt, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium and sulfur. Some trace elements: iodine, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc and manganese
qualities of good hay
1. Good aroma (smell) 2. Sweet taste 3. Good color - greenish to brownish but not yellow. 4. Crisp to touch, bright and clean 5. No dust or mould 6. Contain quality species 7. Cut at time grasses are at their best between flower and seed.
name 3 factors which affect the quality of hay
1. The species it contains 2. Soil it was grown in 3. Time of year it was cut 4. Way it was made 5. First or second cut 6. Storage
name the 9 parts of the digestive track
Lips, Incisors, tongue, molars, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
what is the job of the mouth
: Pick up the feed, manual break down and saliva breaks down starches. Saliva also makes it easier to swallow.
what is the job of the Pharynx
: closes off windpipe so food goes down esophagus
what is the job of the esophagus
tube that takes food to stomach. Moves one way so horse can't vomit.
what is the job of the Stomach
small sack where proteins and mineral start absorption. holds 2-4 gallons and works best when 2/3 full.
what is the job of the Small Intestine
70 foot tube with loops and folds. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats and minerals are broken down and absorbed in the bloodstream.
what is the job of the Large Intestine
25 foot tube where food broken down, absorbed and solid wastes gathered. Does most of the work digesting grass, hay and other roughage. Contains bacteria to do the work and produce some vitamins
The large intestine consists of what parts
cecum, large colon, small colon and rectum
when is a good time to feed a bran mash
1. tired horse after a hard day's work 2. fit horse on the night before his day off 3. a sick horse to tempt appetite and keep bowls functioning properly.
how do you make a bran mash
How to Make: 1. Put 2-3 pounds of bran into bucket. 2. Pour boiling water over until damp throughout 3. Stir thoroughly and add 1 Tablespoon of salt or Epsom salts (epsom more laxative) 4. Cover with sack and leave until cool enough to eat. 5. Add a little linseed jelly or molasses to improve taste if desired.