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What were some factors that encouraged the settlement of the new territories?
• Louisiana Purchase brought the entire Mississippi River under American conrol
• The Transcontinental Treaty wiped out the last vestiges of Spanish power east of the Mississippi
• Fed. gov. directly stimulated settlement of the West by promising land to men who enlisted during the War of 1812
• To facilitate westward migration, Congress authorized funds in 1816 for the extension of the National Road
• Seeking security, pioneers usually migrated as families
• Most settlers clustered near the navigable rivers of the West
Key facts about the "Five Civilized Tribes" and pressures upon them
• Cherokees, Chcotaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles
• Years of commercial dealing and intermarriage with whites had created in these tribes an influential minority of mixed-bloods who embraced Christianity, practiced agriculture, built grist-mills, and even owned slaves
• Southern legislatures passed laws that threatened to expropriate Indian lands unless Indians moved west
• Others extended state jurisdiction over tribes (aka no tribal government) and declared that no Indian could be a witness in a court case involving whites
President Jackson and his approach to Indian tribes
President Andrew Jackson believed Indians should be subject to the laws of the states where they lived
The Indian Removal Act authorized him to exchange public lands in the West for Indian territories in the East and appropriated money to cover the expenses of removal
• Cost was really big, had to remove most N.A.s forcibly
Key facts about the Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
• The Cherokees proclaimed themselves an independent republic within Georgia
• Cherokees petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court for an injunction to halt Georgia's actions to impose control
• Chief Justice John Marshal denied the Cherokees' claim to status as a republic within Georgia; rather, they were a "domestic dependent nation", a kind of ward of the USA
• He added that prolonged occupancy had given the Cherokees a claim to their lands within Georgia, were entitled to federal protection from tampering by Georgia
• Reportedly sneering, "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it," President Jackson ignored it
What was the 'Trail of Tears'?
• In 1838 Cherokees were forcibly removed to the new Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
• Traveled west along what was known as the Trail of Tears
• 1/3 of the nation died during and just after the removal
• Suffered cruel, inhumane treatment
What economic and demographic changes led to changes in agriculture?
• Rising prices and demand for agricultural commodities such as wheat, corn, and cotton drew settlers westward in search of better farmland
• the quickening pace of industrialization and urbanization in the East spurred a shift of workers toward non-agricultural employment
• The river systems made it possible for farmers in Ohio to ship wheat and corn down the Ohio River to the Mississippi and from there down to New Orleans
• Slaves became an increasingly valuable commodity
Key facts about Land Laws of 1785
• Ordinance of 1785 divided public lands into sections of 640 acres -- too much for one farmer to buy; thought farmers would band together to purchase
• This would ensure that compatible settlers would have rural neighborhoods
• Federalists gained revenue by encouraging the sale of huge tracts of land to wealthy speculators who had no intention of farming it themselves
• The speculators held onto land until its value rose and then sold off parcels to farmers
• Congress steadily liberalized land policy, speculators always remained one step ahead
Role of squatters in settling new territories
• An independent and proud lot, formed claims associations to police land auctions and prevent speculators from bidding up the price of land
• Also pressured Congress to allow them preemption rights- that is, the right to purchase at the minimum price land that they had already settled on and improved
• In 1841, Congress acknowledged a general right of preemption
What was the Panic of 1819?
• States banks' issued their own bank notes -- more than they actually had in cash
• A recession in Britain trimmed foreign demands for US crops -- when American farmers were becoming more dependent on exports to pay their debts
• Reacting the flood of state bank notes, the Bank of the US asked state banks pay their debts to the Bank of the US
* the state banks had to force farmers and land speculators to repay loans
• The result was a general curtailment of credit throughout the nation -- biggest losers were land speculators- land prices dropped severely
• Panic left a bitter taste about banks, esp. the Bank of the US, which was widely blamed for the hard times
• Plummeting prices for cash crops demonstrated how much farmers were coming to depend on distant markets
What was the motivation for the transportation revolution?
• The transportation system linking Americans had severe weaknesses
• Rivers west of the Appalachians flowed north to south and could not by themselves connect western farmers to eastern markets
• Roads were expensive to maintain, and horse-drawn wagons could only carry limited produce
• Investment shifted to improving transportation on the waterways, thus initiating the transportation revolution
Key facts and impact of the Erie Canal?
• New York's Erie Canal connected the Hudson River with Lake Erie
• Enabled produce from Ohio to reach NYC by a continuous stretch of waterways
• Started a canal boom- lots of canals constructed
• Canals reduced shipping costs from 20 to 30 cents a ton per mile in 1815 to two or three cents a ton per mile by 1830
Genesis of railroads
• As canal boom ended, the railroad was being introduced
• In 1825, the world's first commercial railroad began operation in England
• In 1840, some three thousand miles of track had been laid in America
• During 1830s, investment in railroads exceeded that of canals
• Cheaper to build, faster, and able to reach more places than canals
What caused the rapid growth of cities?
• Canals and railroads greatly increased opportunities for city businesses
• Esp. river ports were prosperous
• Development of industrialization and inter-regional trade
What were the causes of industrialization?
• The Embargo Act of 1807 persuaded merchants to redirect their capital into factories
• The Era of Good Feelings saw general agreement that the USA needed tariffs -- protected markets
• Transportation revolution also played a key role by bringing eastern manufacturers closer to markets
• Farm families adopted new strategies to survive, by not planting food crops but other stuff like flax for linen
• Also had new technologies
Why was New England first to industrialize?
• Trade wars leading up to the War of 1812 had devastated its commercial economy and persuaded its wealthy merchants to invest in manufacturing
• Swift rivers were ideal sources of waterpower for mills
• Westward migration of many New England's young men left a surplus of young women, who supplied cheap industrial labor
Key facts about Waltham and Lowell
• In 1813, a group of Boston merchants, known as the Boston Associates and including Francis Cabot Lowell, incorporated the Boston Manufacturing Company
• built textile mills in the Mass. towns of Waltham and Lowell
• differed in 2 ways from earlier mills
1. They turned out finished fabrics that required only one additional step, stitching into clothes
2. 80% of the workers in Waltham and Lowell were young unmarried women who had been lured from farms by the promise of wages
What were some points about the inequality of wealth in the 1830's
• By 1833, richest 4% owned 59% of the wealth in Boston
• Commentators celebrated the self-made American who rose from poverty to wealth, however, the vast majority of those who became extremely rich started out with considerable wealth
• At the opposite end of the social ladder were the poor
* Lived close to the edge of misery, depended on child labor to meet expenses, and had little money to spend on medical care or recreation
How were blacks treated around this time?
• Didn't have the right to vote
• Frequently barred free blacks from migrating to other states and cities
• Barred from public conveyances and facilities and either excluded them from public schools or forced them into segregated schools
• Segregation was the rule in northern jails, almshouses, and hospitals
• Only the least-skilled and lowest-paying jobs were open
literally, Latin for "before the war"
* for the U.S. the term refers to pre-Civil War America, especially the pre-Civil War culture in the southern states.
State of the middle class during the Antebellum Era?
• Majority of Americans lived neither in great wealth nor in grinding poverty - Most belonged to middle class
• Americans applied the term middling classes to families headed by professionals, small merchants & manufacturers, landowning farmers, & self-employed artisans
• Commentators portrayed these people as living stable and secure lives - In reality, life in the middle was often unpredictable
Key points about the rise of individualism
• An attitude of individualism sprouted and took firm root in antebellum America
• Once individualism had meant nothing more but selfishness, but now Americans used the word to signify positive qualities
• Self-reliance and the conviction that each person was the best judge of his or her own interests
Key points about attacks on the professions
Claims to social superiority were questioned as never before -- criticisms of lawyers, physicians, and ministers exemplified this assault on authority
• Religious revivals known as the Second Great Awakening (1800-1840) sparked new attacks on professions
• In medicine, states repealed laws that required licenses and education to practice medicine
• Attacks on lawyers sharpened, and relations between ministers and their parishioners grew tense
• Questioning of authority was particularly sharp on the frontier
What were the facts about the questioning of family authority
• Children engaged in a quiet questioning of parental authority
• Economic change created new opportunities that forced young people to choose between staying at home to help their parents and venturing out on their own
• Many young people who no longer depended on their parents for land insisted on privacy in courting and wanted to decide for themselves when and whom to marry
• Young women of a family would no longer marry in their exact birth order
• Growing number of long engagements; some young women were reluctant to tie the knot, fearing that marriage would snuff out their independence
What were the 'separate spheres' of men and women?
• Separate but equal doctrine that portrayed men as superior in making money and governing the world, and women as superior for their moral influence on family members
• Idea of a separate women's sphere blended with a related image of the family and home as refuges secluded from a society marked by commotion and disorder
• Enhanced women's power within marriage by justifying their demands for influence over such vital issues such as child rearing and the frequency of pregnancies
Key points about horizontal allegiances and voluntary associations
• Widespread substitution of horizontal allegiances for vertical allegiances, where authority flows from the top down
• Horizontal relationships were more likely to be marked by those in a similar position -- Example: in large textile mills, operatives discovered they had more in common with one another than with their managers and overseers
• Similarly, married women formed maternal associations to exchange advice about child rearing
• Young men formed debating societies - encouraged sociability and also enhanced their members' public influence
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