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40 terms

APOWCh. 7 - Religion

Midterm flashcards part 7
STUDY
PLAY
religion
a system of beliefs and prectices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally percieved ultimate priorities
secularism
indifference or rejection of organized religious affliations and ideas
monotheistic religions
worship a single diety, God, or Allah
polytheistic religions
worship more than one diety
animistic religions
centered on the belief that inanimate objects possess spirits and should therefore be revered
universalizing religions
actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal
ethnic religion
adherents are born into the faith and converts are not actively sought
Hinduism
-one of the oldest religions in the modern world
-no single founder or theology
-based on ancient practices in indus river valley
-ancient practices include ritual bathing and belief in reincarnation
caste system
locks people into particular social classes and imposes many restrictions (Dalist- lowest in Hinduism)
Buddhism
-splintered off of Hinduism
-Prince Siddhartha found enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree
-don't believe in caste system
Shintoism
-Buddhism mixed with local Japanese religion
-nature and ancestral worship
Taoism
-Lao-Tsu- The Book of the Way
-harmony with nature
-no government is the best government
-don't go to school- just humans and nature
Feng Shui
art and science of organizing living spaces in order to channel the life forces that exist in nature in favorable ways
Confucianism
-philosophy of life
-based on Confucius' teachings
-human virtues and abilities should determine position in society
Judaism
-teachings of Abraham
diaspora
dispersal of any ethnic group
Ashkenazim
Jews in Central Europe
Sephardim
Jews in Africa and Iberia
Zionism
rooted in the belief that Jews should not be absorbed into other societies - idea of a homeland for the Jews
Christianity
-single founder- Jesus
-taught humans of God's plan
-most widely spread
Eastern Orthodox Church
Christianity centered in Constantinople
Roman Catholic Church
Christianity centered in Rome (largest)
Protestant
Christianity formed over Pope dispute (mostly in US)
Islam
-most followers
-traced back to Muhammad
-spoke verses of the Qu'ran
-follow five pillars of islam
-only Allah is pure
Sunni Muslims
Islamics- believe in the effectiveness of family and community when solving problems (majority)
Shi'ite Muslims
believe that only Ali's desendants can rule
Indigenous religions
local, reverence of nature, passed down from family
Shamanism
community faith, follow the leader (shaman)
pilgrimage
when adherents voluntarily travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site
sacred site
place or space infused with religious meaning
minarets
churches in which Muslims pray
hajj
Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca
ziarats
non-hajj pilgrimages
interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the world's major faiths
intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
ethnic clensing
seperate religions seek to "clense" one another (kill them all)
religious fundamentalism
religious leaders and millions of their followers are seeking to return to the basics of their faith
religious extremism
fundamentalism carried to the point of violence
Shari'a laws
harsh criminal code (Islamic) - practiced in Nigeria and Sudan
jihad
Islamic holy war against the west