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Many southerners refused to accept their defeat as divine judgment and believed that God had spared the South for a greater purpose; they came to view the war as:

the Lost Cause

Which of the following statements about the Lost Cause is NOT true?

It made southerners angrier towards blacks and more convinced that slavery was just

During his travels across the United States after the Civil War, Mark Twain observed that:

people of the South discussed the war far more often than people in the North

In the early years of Reconstruction, the Freedmen's Bureau was successful at:

reducing black illiteracy by roughly 20 percent

Ownership of land by blacks was highest in:

the Upper South, especially Virginia

After the Civil War, many southern blacks:

migrated to southern cities

The church became the center of black life for all of the following reasons EXCEPT it:

allowed them the opportunity to socialize with whites

Which statement would most likely have been said by a radical Republican in 1865?

"The former Confederate states are to be treated as provinces conquered in war."

President Johnson's Reconstruction plan included all of the following proposals EXCEPT:

the extension of voting rights to all black males, 21 or older, in the South.

Republicans in Congress became infuriated when:

southern states enacted laws that restricted freedom for blacks

Some southerners were drawn to the Republican Party because:

they were attracted to the party's emphasis on economic development

White southerners used the term carpetbaggers to describe:

powerful northerners who lived in the South

In the Reconstruction South, African-Americans were an influencial voice in:

implementing the reforms of the Republican Party

Which statement about black voters in the South during Reconstruction is NOT true?

The Democratic Party benefited from the increase in black voters.

Southern Democrats realized they could regain their dominance of local power by:

manipulating racial tensions

Which statement about the Ku Klux Klan during the Reconstruction is NOT true?

Republican governors never created policied that resulted in the arrest of members

"Scientific racism" was characterized in the 1870s by all of the following ideas EXCEPT:

the belief that blacks and immigrants controlled both houses of the US Congress

The Redeemers portrayed themselves as the:

saviors of the South from the injustices of Republican rule

A long-lasting legacy of the ideas of the Redeemers was:

the fostering of antagonistic race relations throughout the South

To challenge the state's Republican government in Louisiana, a group of elite Democrats in New Orleans organized a military organization called:

the White League

Whites in the South used all of the following EXCEPT _______ to deny blacks' voting rights.

international diplomacy

In the post-Reconstruction period:

blacks in the South were relegated to second-class citizenship

The _____ Amendment calls for equality before the law.


The _____ Amendment protected blacks' right to vote


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