the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior
behavioral perspective, positive or negative stimuli or events that can motivate a student's behavior
a view that stresses students capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose their destiny, and positive qualities
hierarchy of needs
humanistic perspective, Maslow's concept that individual needs must be satisfied in this sequence: physiological, safety, love and belonging-ness, esteem, and self-actualization
the highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs; the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being
cognitive perspective, the idea that people are motivated to deal effectively with their environment, to master their world, and to process information efficiently.people are internally motivated to interact effectively with the environment
need for affiliation, or relatedness
social perspective, the motive to be securely connected with other people
behavioral perspective. the external motivation to do something to obtain something else (a means to an end), shows lower level of independence and lower persistence on achievement tasks
humanistic and cognitive perspective. the internal motivation to do something for its own sake (an end in itself), encouraged by self pleasure and interest in learning
self-determination and personal choice
intrinsic motivation. Students want to believe that they are doing something because of their own will
create circumstances for students to engage in self-determination
students' perceived level of their own skill and students' perceived level of challenge are low
students' perceived level of their own skill is low, and students' perceived level of challenge is high
students' perceived level of their own skill is high, and students' perceived level of challenge is low
students' perceived level of their own skill is high, students' perceived level of challenge is high
the ability a student brings to the course, such as longstanding success in the subject
how interesting a particular teacher makes a particular class
extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation
rewards are offered to convey information about mastery. they know how much they accomplished. students feel competent.
intrinsic motivation in junior/high school teachers make school setting more personal, less formal and more intrinsically challenging
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation combine
a student may work hard in a course because she enjoys the content and likes learning about it and to earn a good grade
the theory that individuals are motivated to discover the underlying causes of their own behavior and performance. perceived causes of outcomes
strategy to change attribution
concentrate on the task at hand rather that worrying about failing.Cope with failures by retracing their steps to discover their mistake or by analyzing the problem to discover another approach. Attribute their failures to a lack of effort rather than lack of ability.
a response to challenges and difficulties in which the individual feels trapped by the difficulty and attributes the difficulty to a lack of ability
a task-oriented response to difficult or challenging circumstances that focuses on learning strategies and the process of achievement rather than the outcome. winning isn't everything
a focus on winning rather than an achievement outcome, success is believed to result form winning.skill development and self-efficacy take a backseat to winning
Dweck's concept that refers to the cognitive view individuals develop for themselves, individuals have one of two mindsets: Fixed, in which they believe their qualities cannot change. Growth, in which they believe their qualities can change and improve through their effort.
the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.students with high self-efficacy are more likely to persist with effort at a learning task than are students with low self-efficacy.
strategy to improve self-efficacy
Teach specific specific strategies such as, outlining and summarizing. Setting goals. Consider mastery rewards. Combine strategy training with goals. Provide support. Help students believe in their cognitive ability.
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Attribution. Mastery motivation and mindset. Self-efficacy. Goal setting, planning and self-monitoring. Expectations. Values and Purpose.
If students expect to succeed, they are more likely to work hard to reach a goal than if they expect to fail. Three aspects of individual ability beliefs: how good are they at a particular activity, in comparison to others, in relation to their performance in other activities.
sick the day of the test
did not study for this particular test
school has tough requirements
the instructor is biased
friends failed to help
needs and desires that are learned through experiences with the social world
having low expectations for success and giving up at the first sign of difficulty
appearing eager to answer a teacher's question but hoping the teacher will call on another student, sliding down in the seat to avoid being seen by the teacher, avoiding eye contact.
postpone studying for a test until the last minute can blame failure on poor time management, or taking many responsibilities so none is accomplished and blame for too much work
setting unreachable goals
setting goals so high that success is virtually impossible so they can avoid the implication that they are incompetent
anxiety intervention program
worrying emphasize modifying the negative, self-damaging thoughts of anxious students by getting them to engage in more positive, task-focused thoughts.
uninterested or alienated student
Develop positive relationship, show patient. Shoot for student interest. Have student take pride in his work. Consider a mentor
Weiner's dimensions of causal attributions
1.Locus-whether the cause is internal or external to the actor. 2.stability-the extent to which the cause remains the same or changes. 3.controllability-the extent to which the individual can control the cause.