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the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior


behavioral perspective, positive or negative stimuli or events that can motivate a student's behavior

humanistic perspective

a view that stresses students capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose their destiny, and positive qualities

hierarchy of needs

humanistic perspective, Maslow's concept that individual needs must be satisfied in this sequence: physiological, safety, love and belonging-ness, esteem, and self-actualization


the highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs; the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being

competence motivation

cognitive perspective, the idea that people are motivated to deal effectively with their environment, to master their world, and to process information efficiently.people are internally motivated to interact effectively with the environment

need for affiliation, or relatedness

social perspective, the motive to be securely connected with other people

extrinsic motivation

behavioral perspective. the external motivation to do something to obtain something else (a means to an end), shows lower level of independence and lower persistence on achievement tasks

intrinsic motivation

humanistic and cognitive perspective. the internal motivation to do something for its own sake (an end in itself), encouraged by self pleasure and interest in learning

self-determination and personal choice

intrinsic motivation. Students want to believe that they are doing something because of their own will

autonomy-supportive teachers

create circumstances for students to engage in self-determination


students' perceived level of their own skill and students' perceived level of challenge are low


students' perceived level of their own skill is low, and students' perceived level of challenge is high


students' perceived level of their own skill is high, and students' perceived level of challenge is low


students' perceived level of their own skill is high, students' perceived level of challenge is high

individual interest

the ability a student brings to the course, such as longstanding success in the subject

situational interest

how interesting a particular teacher makes a particular class

extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation

rewards are offered to convey information about mastery. they know how much they accomplished. students feel competent.

person-environment fit

intrinsic motivation in junior/high school teachers make school setting more personal, less formal and more intrinsically challenging

intrinsic and extrinsic motivation combine

a student may work hard in a course because she enjoys the content and likes learning about it and to earn a good grade

attribution theory

the theory that individuals are motivated to discover the underlying causes of their own behavior and performance. perceived causes of outcomes

strategy to change attribution

concentrate on the task at hand rather that worrying about failing.Cope with failures by retracing their steps to discover their mistake or by analyzing the problem to discover another approach. Attribute their failures to a lack of effort rather than lack of ability.

helpless orientation

a response to challenges and difficulties in which the individual feels trapped by the difficulty and attributes the difficulty to a lack of ability

mastery orientation

a task-oriented response to difficult or challenging circumstances that focuses on learning strategies and the process of achievement rather than the outcome. winning isn't everything

performance orientation

a focus on winning rather than an achievement outcome, success is believed to result form winning.skill development and self-efficacy take a backseat to winning


Dweck's concept that refers to the cognitive view individuals develop for themselves, individuals have one of two mindsets: Fixed, in which they believe their qualities cannot change. Growth, in which they believe their qualities can change and improve through their effort.


the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.students with high self-efficacy are more likely to persist with effort at a learning task than are students with low self-efficacy.

strategy to improve self-efficacy

Teach specific specific strategies such as, outlining and summarizing. Setting goals. Consider mastery rewards. Combine strategy training with goals. Provide support. Help students believe in their cognitive ability.

achievement processes

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Attribution. Mastery motivation and mindset. Self-efficacy. Goal setting, planning and self-monitoring. Expectations. Values and Purpose.

student's expectation

If students expect to succeed, they are more likely to work hard to reach a goal than if they expect to fail. Three aspects of individual ability beliefs: how good are they at a particular activity, in comparison to others, in relation to their performance in other activities.

attribution: internal-stable-uncontrollable

low aptitude

attribution: internal-stable-controllable

never study

attribution: internal-unstable-uncontrollable

sick the day of the test

attribution: internal-unstable-controllable

did not study for this particular test


school has tough requirements


the instructor is biased


bad luck


friends failed to help

social motives

needs and desires that are learned through experiences with the social world

failure syndrome

having low expectations for success and giving up at the first sign of difficulty


appearing eager to answer a teacher's question but hoping the teacher will call on another student, sliding down in the seat to avoid being seen by the teacher, avoiding eye contact.


postpone studying for a test until the last minute can blame failure on poor time management, or taking many responsibilities so none is accomplished and blame for too much work

setting unreachable goals

setting goals so high that success is virtually impossible so they can avoid the implication that they are incompetent

anxiety intervention program

worrying emphasize modifying the negative, self-damaging thoughts of anxious students by getting them to engage in more positive, task-focused thoughts.

uninterested or alienated student

Develop positive relationship, show patient. Shoot for student interest. Have student take pride in his work. Consider a mentor

Weiner's dimensions of causal attributions

1.Locus-whether the cause is internal or external to the actor. 2.stability-the extent to which the cause remains the same or changes. 3.controllability-the extent to which the individual can control the cause.

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