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Luther
German priest who became angry with the Catholic Church due to its manipulation of the masses through indulgences. He argued against the Catholic Church, and people began to listen to his ideas.
Ninety-five Theses
The document where Martin Luther denounced the sale of indulgences in the Roman Catholic Church
Charles V
emperor of Holy Roman Empire, nephew of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Peace of Augsburg
The settlement between Charles V and the Lutherans which stated that both Christianity and Lutheranism were allowed in the Holy Roman Empire, and that German princes decide which one would be followed believed; symbolizes end of Holy Roman Emperor's dominance in Germany
Henry VIII
King known for separating England from the Catholic Church and starting The Church of England. He did this because he could not get a divorce due to the fact that he had consummated his marriage.
Act of Supremacy
It was issued by Elizabeth's father, Henry VIII, which made him the head of the Church of England
Society of Jesuits
Created by Ignatius Loyola after the Reformation primarily to atract converts. They used reason and logic and went through much education training, and were able to out-argue many adversairies, and Catholicism reached as far as the South Asian Islands. A member is Matteo Ricci
Thirty Year's War
BItter religious struggle between Catholics and protestants. It was an international war in which foreign powers tried to claim parts of German land for themselves.In he end it ended religious conflict in Europe and It sparked a period of state building. Also devastated and divided Germany into countries
Louis XIV
The model absolute monarch of Europe! Built Versailles; had ministers of war and finance; revoked the Edit of Nantes; increased power of intendantes
Peter the Great
Romanov tsar, influenced by the European Enlightenment and sought to modernize Russia-traveled to Europe where he learned how to build ships(and sent people back to teach others), cities, and dress like Europeans.
Peter The Great
reformed the army by offering better pay, drafting peasants who served for life, providing his forces with extensive training and weapons. He overthrew the gov bureaucracy to facilitate tax collection and improve efficiency. He had trouble trying to find a successor because his son, Alexi, had little desire and used his ill health as an excuse not to rule.
Catherine the Great
Founded orphanages, hospitals and schools for the privileged kids (schools for girls). Thought about being nicer to the serfs. Owed her power to the nobles. She slept her way to the top to get their help and to kill her husband.
Catherine the Great
Convenes a commission to codify laws, but conservative nobles don't like her ideas; too liberal. So she distracts them by going to war with the Ottomans. She Expanded Russia to the Black Sea and got a promise from the sultan that he would protect his Christian subjects
Copernicus
Introduced the idea of a heliocentric universe during the Scientific Revolution.
Isaac Newton
Outlined his views on the natural world in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Argued that a law of universal gravitation regulates the motions of bodies throughout the universe. Laws of motion and gravity.
Heliocentric Theory
stated the sun, rather than the earth (from Ptolemy's theory), was the center of the universe and the other planets, including the earth, revolved around it. This created religious tension and many people had a hard time accepting his theory, although it made more sense than Ptolemy's theory.
Galileo
first to use the telescope to look into the Universe. He concluded that the moon was not gaseous and had mountains that showed it could be terrestrial land. He added ideas to Johannes Kepler's New Astronomy with being able to see the planets he showed that Kepler's mathematical reasoning were correct.
John Locke
widely known as the Father of Liberalism, influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, social contract theory, individuals form a societal government
Voltaire
Enlightment thinker, represented persecution of religious minorities and censorship of royal officals (Wanted freedom of speech and religion)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French enlightenment thinker that said the idealist society would be where all individuals would make laws/ have a say in the government.
Montesquieu
Wanted separation of powers and checks and balances; made it so no other groups got more power than one another
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who established the capitalist economy where private parties make their own goods and set their own prices. There was a free-market economy with no government interference. Wrote The Wealth of Nations and used the term laissez faire
Magna Carta
English proclamation that limited the power of the king and protected the people of the empire from unfair punishment.
Habeas Corpus
Idea that one is innocent until proven guilty. One must be brought before a judge to be decided whether he is guilty or not
Wiliam and Mary
Had to agree to accept the English bill of rights & constitutional monarchy ushering in the Glorious Revoltuion.
English Bill of Rights
Act of the English Parliament in 1689. Stated that Englishment had certain unalienable rights, Roman Catholics could not rule England, and reduced the absolute power of the King. The Parliament must have a voice in government.
Conservatism
viewing society as an organism, change is natural with historical development. Traditionalist that like the old ways and social hierarchy.
Liberalism
belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. Liberalism first became a powerful force during the Age of Enlightenment.
Nationalism
Extreme patriotism, feeling superior over countries, being really enthusiastic about your country. National Flags, anthems, etc.
Giuseppe Mazzini
founder of the young italy group, this group later became very involved in italian nationalist views and helped work towards a independant Italian nation state
John Stuart Mill
supporter of early liberalism. He thought that everybody should have economic and intellectual freedom and that powerful minorities shouldn't be able to control the rights of others.
Edmund Burke
English political philosopher; conservative who approved the American Revolution (ex. of natural change) but denounced the French Revolution (chaotic assault on society)- condemned radical or revolutionary change which he believed could only lead to anarchy.
William Wilberforce
leading spokesman of the movement to end the slave trade
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
written by Mary Wollstoneraft, she argued that women possessed all rights men did
Mary Astell
Famous author that supported woman's rights.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Began to build a movement for women's rights and her conference passed twelve resolutions
Zionism
belief or movement that encouraged all the Jews to move to their holy land in Palestine, modern day Israel.
Congress of Vienna
A conference of Ambassadors that met in Vienna. Their objective was to try and solve the many problems arising from the French Revolution, Napoleonic wars
Klemens von Metternich
minister of Austria. This prince returned sovereignty to Europe's Royal families, restored them to the thrones they had lost during the Napoleonic era, and created a diplomatic order based on a balance of power that prevented any one state from domination the others.
Metternich
Who's main goal was to suppress national consciousness because he saw it as a threat to the Austrian empire? He was the main spokesman at The Congress of Vienna.
Bismarck
Wealthy landowner appointed as prime minister of Prussia. Reformed and expanded Prussian army. Provoked wars with Denmark, Austria, and France. Caused country to be very nationalistic after crushing enemy forces.
Italian Unification
The Austrians ruled the north, and the Spanish ruled the south. However, Mazzini's Young Italy spread ideas of independence and making a national state. Cavour was a political leader close to the King of Sardinia. He combined forces with advocates of independence and expelled the Austrians out of northern Italy due to an alliance with France. In the south, Garibaldi made an army of red shirted passionate nationalists and overthrew Spanish rule, making the Kingdom of Italy.
Lutheranism
First Protestant form of Christianity, started during _____ 's protests against the Catholic Church. It is still a prominent sect of Christianity today.
Luther
Started the Protestant Reformation, and by doing so forever changed the role that religion would play in Europe and the entire world
frame of reference
social class, gender, job, educational background, religion, personal interests and hobbies... what a person is influenced by
historical context
The society a person lives in, the society's values, present political and economic status
speaker
the voice that is telling the story/document (not just the name). Frame of reference info.
occassion
the time, place, current situation, and context of a story/document when it was written
audience
Who the document was intended for, who would be interested in reading the document
purpose
why the author is writing
subject
the main idea of the article
tone
feeling or manner of expression used by the author (ex. cold, dreamy, encouraging, sad, joyful, somber, etc.)
Teotihuacan
Largest early city in Mesoamerica and when Mesoamerica declined it became a target. Attacks on the city led to era of militarization and empire building in Mesoamerica.
Bernal Diaz del Castillo
A soldier in the Spanish Army. He described Tenochtitlan at its peek. He thought the two most impressive sights were: the markets and the temples.
Tula
Capital of the Toltec empire. Located just north of Mexico City, had thin soil and little rainfall. Shared architect as from Mayans.
Mexica
Nomadic group that became Aztecs. Mesoamerican empire that came to power in the mid 1200s and used sacrifices to "keep the earth spinning."
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec empire, located on lake Texcoco. lake offered many advantages ( supplies, making of chinampas, natural defense)
Chinampa system
the way of farming of the Mexica people that involved taking the fertile mud from the lake bottom and using it as soil to plant crops it. The soil was so fertile that you could harvest up to seven times in one year.
Triple Alliance
between Mexica, Texcoco, and Tlacopan; main objective was to recover tribute from conquered societies
Tezcatlipoca
the Aztec god of giving and taking life and the patron deity of warriors
Huitzilopochtli
the Aztec warrior god
Chucuito
dominated highlands region of South America, depended on cultivation of alpacas and llamas, exchanged wool and potatoes for maize and coco leaves.
Pachacuti
The Inca ruler (1438-1471). launched a series of military campaigns to extend Inca rule. He extended Inca control over the northern and southern highlands. He soon moved to Cuzco and then he began his construction on Inca roads, he built the best-designed roads ever made (until modern time)
quipu
an array of small chords of various colors and lengths that were attached to a smaller chord, it was a counting system used to help remember information like population, state property, taxes, labor services, and historical info
Cuzco
The city that was made the capital of the Inca empire by Pachacuti. It had about 40,000 inhabitants living both in the city and in the surrounding suburbs.
Inti
the Inca's main deity, the sun god
Nan Madol
A massive stone palace and administrative center on the island of Pohnpei in the Caroline Islands. It was primarily built from 1200 to 1600 by the Sandeleur dynasty, and it is composed of ninety-three artificial islets that are protected by seawalls and breakwaters on three sides
ali'i nui
the high class of priests in Hawaii, had many exclusive rights
marae
A type of distinct architecture of the early Pacific societies that was used for ceremonial and temple purposes. It had several terraced floors and a rock or coral wall marking the boundaries of the holy space.
Ming
The last pure dynasty in china, started by Hong Wu.
Hongwu
he leader of the Ming dynasty erased all the Mongols ways; made everything Confucian again 
Zheng He
Yongle's right-hand eunuch, he was entrusted with commanding the hundreds of treasure ships that sailed around the ports of the Eastern Hemisphere. eunuch, 6' 4", built really big, Muslim, left the court to go out, admiral of the fleet, from nan keng, and built fleets, recruited his own sailors, soldiers, and guides, went to southst asia, india, arabia, africa, brought back a lot of tribute. He was diplomatic with the people he encountered, spreading the name of China throughout the Indian ocean region and southeast Asia. He resorted to military force only when necessary. This brought criticism from many Chinese people who believed that the only acceptable relationship with foreigners was tributary.
Mandarins
Officers for the central government that went out and check on local officials to ensure they were doing their job the way the central government wanted them to do.
Yongle Encyclopedia
Has all important information about China including famous literature, art and history
Fernando of Aragon/ Isabel of Castile
their married united the two wealthiest Iberian realms. Known as the Catholic Kings. They sponsored Christopher Columbus's quest for the west route to China. Authority was shown past Iberia. hint*(Aragon and Castile)
reconquista
Fernando and Isabella completed the ______ by conquering kingdom of Granada and absorbing it into their state
Bartolomeau Dias
Portugese explorer, first European to round the southern tip of Africa and enter the Indian Ocean in 1488. went back to Portugal after entering Indian Ocean and did not reach India.
Vasco de Gama
Portugese explorer. In 1497, he sailed to India (around Africa) and brought back spices. First European explorer to reach India.
Christopher Columbus
sailed to the americas in 1492, was really looking for a cheaper way to trade goods in asian markets.
Brunelleschi
A Florentine architect who reinvinted equipment and designs for a large dome. He overlooked another dome on the cathedral of Florence, but the people of Florence took the building of his dome as a symbol of the city's wealth and leadership in cultural and artistic affairs.
Donatello
(1386-1466) sculptor, depicted images in natural poses that reflected actual working on human muscles. Important Sculpture- "David" in bronze
Machiavelli
Italian writer during the renaissance. Worked for a powerful family and wrote a book (The Prince) on how to be respected in politics by balancing fear(power) and being loved by the people.
Michelangelo
1475-1564) sought to depict their subjects in natural poses that reflected the actual workings of human muscles rather than awkward and rigid postures often found in earlier sculptures he represented the emotions of their subjects.The David and the Sistine Chapel
Raphael
Famous Renaissance Painter, most famous painting is the School of Athens
Jan Van Eyck
Famous painter born in Belgium in 1390. He invented oil painting
Mirandola
tried to harmonize the different teachings of Plato, Aristotle, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Zorastrianism among others in his book Oration on the Dignity of Man. His efforts failed because of faulty information and misinterpretations
Leonardo da Vinci
Famous artist, painted in three dimensions rather than two. Painted pictures depicting Christianity due to heavy influence of religion during the time.
Albrecht Durer
watercolors, engravings and nature, the Da Vinci of the Northern Renaissance
Towns people
Which group was a monarch's best ally?
Tribute
What type of system did the Aztec use to control neighbors?
Petrarch
Father of humanism
Toltec
Which group did the Aztecs look up to?
Gold
What type of economical famine plagued Europe in middle ages?
Portugal
Which European country led the way in exploration?
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conqueror that conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico, and built the new capital city-Mexico City on top of Tenochtitlan
Motecuzoma II
Aztec Ruler during the time Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs and that was taken hostage and later killed.
Francisco Pizarro
The Spanish conqueror who went into South America and destroyed the Inca Empire for Spanish colonization in Peru
Atahualpa
He was the king of the Inca Empire. He was captured by Pizarro and was spared until he gave Pizarro a large quantity of gold. Then they later killed him.
Prince Henry the Navigator
from Portugal; conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta. He Sponsored voyages down west African coast. He had a school of navigation: very popular and was the best there was. He wanted to Christianize the world
Marco Polo
his travels created interest in exploration; Columbus carried his discoveries with him to help guide him
Afonso de Albuquerque
He was a portuguese explorer. He conquered the Port of Goa, Melaka or present day Malaysia, Spice Islands (Moluccas). He established portuguese colonies in the Indian Ocean.
Ferdinand Magellan
Spain (actually Portuguese, but Ferdinand and Isabella commissioned him to go on a trip around the world), 1521, Circumnavigated the world, He got killed along with a lot of his crew
Pedro Cabral
Portugal, 1500, Coast of South America, With Amerigo Vespucci (travel companion- who the Americas are named after because he was the cartographer)
Glovanni Caboto
UK, 1497, New England Coast, "John Cabot", The south was already claimed, and the Canada area was free land and no wars would be fought
Henry Hudson
Netherlands, 1609, North America, Hudson Bay and River (New York area- Dutch colony for a while (new Holland)
Jacques Cartier
France, 1534, St. Lawrence Seaway, Establish a lot of ports and stuff in Canada
Captain James Cook
English explorer who extensively explored the the South Pacific and many Polynesian islands.
Legazpi
Spanish explorer who explored and conquered the phillipines, he named the islands after King Phillip II of spain, conquered most of it in 1575, Cebu and Manila, very easy battles.
Jan Pieterzoon
A dutch explorer who founded Batavia on the island of Java in 1619, Java worked as an entrepot for the VOC
Vitus Bering
Danish explorer employed by Russia to look for a northeast passage in 1725 and 1733. Sailed the Bering Strait and reached the Kamchatka peninsula.
Thomas Peters
Selected as spokesmen for 200 black families, he went to london to petition for better treatment, he escaped to Nova Scotia with his family and many other had escaped two times before
Sunni Ali
Songhay Ruler, consolidated Songhay empire. Built an administrative and military apparatus (structure) appointed governors who oversaw affairs. Created an imperial navy who patrolled the Niger River (important because was a "commercial highway") HIs military strength allowed his successors to extend authority and rule later on
King Nzinga Memba (Afonso I)
became a devout christian to establish good relationship with Portugal. wanted to end slavery and wrote letters to the king of Portugal asking him to end the slave trade.
Queen Nzinga
led spirited resistance against portuguese forces (conquest of angola), thought of as a king rather than a queen, mobilized central african peoples against her portuguese adversaries and allied with Dutch mariners who traded on african coast. Her aim= drive portuguese from her land, then expel dutch, and finally create a vast African empire embracing the entire lower Congo basin
Dona Beatriz
proclaimed to be possessed by St. Anthony to communicate messages from God, taught her followers that Jesus was a black man, later burned at stake.
Olaudah Equiano
a freed slave who wrote books to show the horrors of his life as a slave. He was enslaved at the age of 10 and worked in the Caribbean, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. He bought his freedom after the 7 years war. After his book was published he went on a book tour (including the UK) and gave anti-slavery speeches.
mercantilism
- When you export more than you import- favorable balance of trade 1. (Europe) gets trade goods from colonies and trading ports 2. control the balance of trade with the colonies 3. high tariffs (taxes) on imports
Treaty of Tordesillas
A treaty made between Spain and Portugal that divided the newly discovered lands at the line of demarcation (west of Cape Verde) and gave Portugal Brazil.
Viceroy
Were the Spanish king's representatives in the Americas who wielded considerable power as they governed either New Spain or New Castile
Audiencias
They were a group of university-educated laywers who formed courts. They heard appeals against the viceroy's decisions and policies and could address their concerns directly to the Spanish King. They conducted reviews of the viceroys performance at the end of their term and could subject them to harsh punishment. In the Americas they were town councils that were incharge of local administration.
Peninsulares
A name for people from the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal).
criolles
A person who was born in the Americas of Spanish or Portuguese ancestry
mestizo
A person who has mixed European and Native American heritage.
mulattos
mix between a Black (African) and a White (European) person.
zambos
A person born of native and African parents.
metis
mixture of French and Native person. Many french fur traders associated with native women in areas by their forts or posts in the Americas.
Manilla Gelleons
-the spanish trading ships that sailed across the pacific island between manila and mexico
Quinto
the one-fifth of Mexican and Peruvian silver production that was reserved for the Spanish monarchy.
VOC
The Dutch's joint-stock company: The United East India Company and was a monopoly of spice trade. Contributed to early network of trade. Controlled all ports of Java. It's main goal was strictly focused on profitable trade and to buy, sell, build trading posts.
Virgin of Guadalupe
national symbol of Mexico, gained reputation of working miracles on behalf of individuals who visited her shrine-symbolized mexican faith, powerful symbol of Mexican nationalism
Ecomienda System
a grant for the recruitment of laborers that allowed the Spanish settlers to compel the Taíno and other natives to work in their mines and fields. A hacienda is a type
Mita System
recruit workers for particularly dangerous work in the silver mines that free laborers would not accept, Spanish authorites made 1/7 of male population in native villages to work for 4 months
Hacienda
the organization of mining industries made opportunities for cultivators, herders and artisans to provide mining towns with food, wine, textiles, etc.
Engenho
was a sugar mill, argricultural and industrial enterprise, was heavy labor planting and harvesting cane, most complex business in Americas, sugar was most important export
Dutch Trading Posts
Java, Capetown, Colombo
England Trading Posts
Belize, Jamaica, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta
Spain Trading Posts
Hispaniola, Philippines
Portuguese Trading Posts
Azores, Cape Verde Islands, Goa, Macao, Cueta
France Trading Post
Pondicherry (place)
Great Zimbabwe
a very successful Sub-saharan regional kingdom. It was widly known around the world as one of the richest kingdoms in the world because of its great supply of gold which it exported to countries around the world by using the ports on the swahili coastline. Was not conquered by any European power, like Portugal, France, England, or the Dutch.
Cape Town
a Dutch colony esablished around the same time as the Spanish conquered the African city-state of Angola. The land for the colony was taken by the Dutch when they came to the tip of Africa as farmers.
Triangular trade
because of high demand for labor, a ∆ trade process created because of the 3 legs of the voyage from Europe to the Americas. 1. carried guns, horses and other manufactured goods to Africa to trade for slaves. 2. Slaves were sold are shipped to Americas. 3. Once in America, put American products on the ship to bring back to europe
Middle Passage
The trans-Atlantic route that carried slaves from Africa to the Americas. The second part of the triangular trade network.
The Stuarts
The cousins of the Tudors who ruled England for a while. Came into power after Elizabeth Tudor. Every Stuart shut out Parliament at one point. They ruled while the Glorious Revolution went on. Order: James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II
Oliver Cromwell
Commander of the army who opposed the king. He defeated the royalists and took power. In the end he decided to not listen to Parliament (even though that's why he fought against the crown) and became basically a tyrant.