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English Exam: Poetry Terms

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figurative language
language that is used in writing to produce images in a reader's mind and to express ideas in fresh, vivid, and imaginative ways
conceit
extended metaphor
hyperbole
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
motif
a theme or idea in a work of art or literature that is developed or repeated
symbol
something that stands for or represents something else
figure of speech
A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things.
apostrophe
a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction
metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
simile
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
metonomy
a figure of speech which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it
synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword).
oxymoron
a figure of speech consisting of two apparently contradictory terms
personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
alliteration
use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
assonance
the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words
consonance
the repetition of consonants (or consonant patterns) especially at the ends of words
onomatopoeia
using words that imitate the sound they denote
meter
A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry, determined by a certain number of feet
foot
The basic rhythmic unit of a line of poetry, formed by a combination of two or three syllables, either stressed or unstressed.
rhythm
the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
rhyme scheme
the pattern of rhyme in a poem
syntax
The grammatical structure of prose and poetry; sentence structure, punctuation and lines
stanza
a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem:
couplet=2
tercet/triplet=3
quatrain=4
sestet=6
septet=7
octave/octet=8
enjambment
the continuation of meaning, without pause or break, from one line of poetry to the next
caesura
a break or pause (usually for sense) in the middle of a verse line
fixed form
a poem that may be categorized by the pattern of its lines, meter, rhythm, or stanzas.
sonnet
a fourteen line form of poetry
Italian sonnet
Petrarchan:
a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, with a "turn" at the end, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd
English sonnet
Shakespearean:
consists of three quatrains with the rhyme pattern "abab," cdcd," "efef" followed by a couplet with the pattern "gg" containing the "turn"
lyric
a short poem of songlike quality
blank verse
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
free verse
unrhymed verse without a consistent metrical pattern
diction
the author's choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning
connotation
refers to the implied or suggested meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary definition
denotation
the literal meaning of a word
pun
a play on words, often achieved through the use of words with similar sounds but different meanings
litote
a figure of speech that emphasizes its subject by conscious understatement
tone
the writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject of a story, toward a character, or toward the audience (the readers).
theme
a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in a literary or artistic work, shown though the relationship between verbs and nouns
speaker
the person speaking in the poem, like the narrator in prose - not always the poet
allusion
passing reference or indirect mention
analogy
drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect
juxtaposition
a side-by-side position in order to compare
paradox
a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
antithesis
a direct opposite, a contrast