Study guide 4

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In the study by Lord, Lepper, and Ross (1979) participants exposed to information that disconfirms their beliefs in capital punishment displayed attitude polarization. Which of the following is a potential mechanism or cause of this effect?
A. Remember strengths of confirmatory evidence but weaknesses of disconfirming evidence
B. Judge disconfirming evidence as more relevant and reliable
C. Accept confirming evidence at face value and scrutinize disconfirming evidence
D. Both A and C.
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In the study by Lord, Lepper, and Ross (1979) participants exposed to information that disconfirms their beliefs in capital punishment displayed attitude polarization. Which of the following is a potential mechanism or cause of this effect?
A. Remember strengths of confirmatory evidence but weaknesses of disconfirming evidence
B. Judge disconfirming evidence as more relevant and reliable
C. Accept confirming evidence at face value and scrutinize disconfirming evidence
D. Both A and C.
D. Both A and C.
Anna, Jeanine, and Debby all decide to try out to be Loyola cheerleaders and all three make it. Anna is a natural cheerleader and easily glides through the try-outs. Jeanine is slightly less skilled than Anna, but easily makes the squad. Debby, on the other hand, has very limited cheerleading experience and must put in hours of extra practice each day just to make the squad. Who is likely to enjoy being a member of the squad the most?
A. Anna, because of effort justification
B. Debby, because of a self-fulfilling prophecy
C. Debby, because of effort justification
D. Jeanine, because of insufficient punishment
C. Debby, because of effort justification
People tend to experience a strong physiological response when they feel their freedom is threatened, often leading them to do the opposite of what others intended. This phenomenon is known as
A. belief perseverance.
B. evaluative conditioning.
C. the bias blind spot.
D. reactance.
D. reactance.
"Consider the opposite," a cognitive debiasing strategy, is effective at reducing bias
A. Because it has a snappy name
B. Because it directs attention to confirmatory evidence
C. Because it directs attention to contrary evidence that would not otherwise be considered.
D. Because it makes people choose the proper decision rule or strategy (e.g., weighted averaging model)
C. Because it directs attention to contrary evidence that would not otherwise be considered.
The bias blind spot refers to
A. repeatedly committing the consistency fallacy.
B. believing that other people are more prone to biases than oneself.
C. overestimating one's personal causal agency.
D. failing to recognize the logical equivalence of two complementary statements.
B. believing that other people are more prone to biases than oneself.
What is the continued influence effect?
A. Once people believe in a conspiracy theory, it is hard to get them to give up that belief.
B. People who believe in the paranormal tend to retain those beliefs over a lifetime.
C. Science education makes it less likely that people will adopt superstitious beliefs.
D. People's judgments tend to be affected by misinformation even after it has been corrected.
D. People's judgments tend to be affected by misinformation even after it has been corrected.
Lindeman and Aarnio's (2007) core knowledge account explains the magical contagion effect by suggesting that
A. people's domain-specific knowledge is inappropriately extended to other domains.
B. people learn to associate negative affect with the supposedly contaminated item.
C. people frequently fail to develop a rudimentary grasp of the principles of physics.
D. it emerges over the course of normal human development, beginning with children's play and the concept of "cooties."
A. people's domain-specific knowledge is inappropriately extended to other domains.
Which of these sayings regarding poison ivy are most likely to predict people avoiding the plant and staying itch-free:
A. Leaves of three, let it be
B. Poison ivy has three leaves that are pointy and often slightly shiny
C. Beware of plants with three leaves
D. Three leaves, don't touch!
A. Leaves of three, let it be
Lewandowsky et al. (2013) found that people's rejection of the science of climate change is predicted by their
A. belief in intelligent design rather than evolutionary theory.
B. belief in the benefits of socialist governments.
C. rejection of the scientifically corroborated relationship between HIV and AIDS.
D. belief in free markets and conspiracy theories.
D. belief in free markets and conspiracy theories.
Petty and Cacioppo's (1986) elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
A. views attitude change in response to persuasion attempts as self-serving.
B. has yielded findings that directly contradict commonsense.
C. predicts that people will be most influenced by peripheral or superficial factors like speaker attractiveness when they think a lot about messages.
D. specifies when people will use the central or peripheral route when thinking about a persuasive message.
D. specifies when people will use the central or peripheral route when thinking about a persuasive message.
Positive moods tend to
A. lower levels of of creativity
B. increase the reliance on anchors
C. increase the reliance on stereotypes
D. decrease free associations
C. increase the reliance on stereotypes
Research by Damasio on lesion patients discussed in class (and video) shows that
A. Emotions play a largely beneficial role in decision making
B. Emotions always lead to less rational decision making
C. Emotions are a consequence of decisions, but never influence the process of decision making
D. None of the above
A. Emotions play a largely beneficial role in decision making
Shirley has been working all week, taking care of her two sons, and attending night classes. During one of her weekly study sessions, Shirley and her classmates are talking about their plans for the weekend. Shirley mentions needing to get some clothes for her sons, and her classmate suggests she also, "Buy something nice for herself because she deserves it." Based on what we know about happiness, this advice is also supported by research.
True
False
False
Healthy behaviors have been show to be associated with
A. decreased cognitive functioning
B. decreased time affluence
C. increased positive affect
D. increased upward comparison
C. increased positive affect
Research shows that money doesn't directly lead to happiness. This occurs for two reasons:
A. Social comparison and hedonic rollercoaster
B. Upward social comparisons and adaptation
C. This is not true. There is strong and positive correlation between income and happiness
D. None of the above
B. Upward social comparisons and adaptation