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Semester 1 Final Vocab


Adenosine-triphosphate, or a high energy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells can use


Adenosine-diphosphate, or a low energy molecule that can be converted to ATP


process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light


series of light-absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer in the thylakoid membrane

Electron Transport Chain

series of proteins in the thylakoid and mitochondrial membrane that aid in converting ADP to ATP by transferring electrons

ATP Synthase

enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that adds a high energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP

Calvin Cycle

process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2

Cellular Respiration

process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present


process that requires oxygen to occur


anaerobic process by which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate and two net ATP are produced


process that does not require oxygen to occur

Krebs Cycle

process during cellular respiration breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in the electron transport chain


anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis

Lactic Acid

product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells

Cell Cycle

pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division the occurs in an eukaryotic cell


process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents


process by which the cell cytoplasm divides


long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information


protein that organizes chromosomes around which the DNA wraps


loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase


one half of a duplicated chromosome


region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis


repeating nucleotide at the end of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes


first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell


second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator


third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposites sides of the cell


last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membrane starts to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and spindle fibers disassemble

Growth factor

broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division


programmed cell death


common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division


having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous


cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health


to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body


substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer

Asexual reproduction

process by which offspring are not produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of gametes

Binary fission

asexual reproduction in which a cell divides in to two equal parts


group of cells that work together to perform a similar function


group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function of related functions

Organ system

two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions

Cell differentiation

processes by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature form and function

Stem cell

cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated

Somatic cell

cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes


sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell

Homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ


chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism

Sex chromosome

chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics

Sexual reproduction

process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced


fusion of an egg and sperm cell


cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one for an egg and one for a sperm


cell that has only one copy of each chromosome


form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells, important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction


process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes


male gamete


female gamete

Polar body

haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate


characteristic that is inherited


study of hereditary patterns and variation of organisms


type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform


mating of two organisms

Law of Segregation

Mendel's first law stating that (1) Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes. Thus, the two copies of each gene segregate or separate during gamete formation


specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein


any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome


characteristic of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids


characteristic of having two different alleles that appears at the same locus of sister chromatids


all of an organism's genetic material


collection of an organism's genetic information that codes for traits


collection of an organism's physical characteristics


allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism's genotype


allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype

Punnett square

model for prediction all possible genotypes resulting from a cross, or mating

Monohybrid cross

cross, or mating, between organisms that involves only one pair of contrasting traits


cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype

Dihybrid cross

mating between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits

Law of Independent Assortment

Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate form from one another during gamete formation


likelihood that a particular event will happen

Crossing over

exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I

Genetic linkage

tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together

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