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Adenosine-triphosphate, or a high energy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells can use
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light
series of light-absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer in the thylakoid membrane
Electron Transport Chain
series of proteins in the thylakoid and mitochondrial membrane that aid in converting ADP to ATP by transferring electrons
enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that adds a high energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2
process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present
anaerobic process by which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate and two net ATP are produced
process during cellular respiration breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in the electron transport chain
region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis
repeating nucleotide at the end of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes
first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposites sides of the cell
last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membrane starts to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and spindle fibers disassemble
having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous
cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health
to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
process by which offspring are not produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of gametes
group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function of related functions
processes by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature form and function
chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced
form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells, important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction
process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate
Law of Segregation
Mendel's first law stating that (1) Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes. Thus, the two copies of each gene segregate or separate during gamete formation
characteristic of having two different alleles that appears at the same locus of sister chromatids
cross, or mating, between organisms that involves only one pair of contrasting traits
cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
Law of Independent Assortment
Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate form from one another during gamete formation
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