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77 terms

Lenox 4-6

Semester 1 Final Vocab
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ATP
Adenosine-triphosphate, or a high energy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells can use
ADP
Adenosine-diphosphate, or a low energy molecule that can be converted to ATP
Chemosynthesis
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light
Photosystem
series of light-absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer in the thylakoid membrane
Electron Transport Chain
series of proteins in the thylakoid and mitochondrial membrane that aid in converting ADP to ATP by transferring electrons
ATP Synthase
enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that adds a high energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
Calvin Cycle
process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2
Cellular Respiration
process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present
Aerobic
process that requires oxygen to occur
Glycolysis
anaerobic process by which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate and two net ATP are produced
Anaerobic
process that does not require oxygen to occur
Krebs Cycle
process during cellular respiration breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in the electron transport chain
Fermentation
anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis
Lactic Acid
product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells
Cell Cycle
pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division the occurs in an eukaryotic cell
Mitosis
process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents
Cytokinesis
process by which the cell cytoplasm divides
Chromosome
long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information
Histone
protein that organizes chromosomes around which the DNA wraps
Chromatin
loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase
Chromatid
one half of a duplicated chromosome
Centromere
region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis
Telomere
repeating nucleotide at the end of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes
Prophase
first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
Anaphase
third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposites sides of the cell
Telophase
last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membrane starts to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and spindle fibers disassemble
Growth factor
broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
Apoptosis
programmed cell death
Cancer
common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
Benign
having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous
Malignant
cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health
Metastasize
to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
Carcinogen
substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer
Asexual reproduction
process by which offspring are not produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of gametes
Binary fission
asexual reproduction in which a cell divides in to two equal parts
Tissue
group of cells that work together to perform a similar function
Organ
group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function of related functions
Organ system
two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
Cell differentiation
processes by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature form and function
Stem cell
cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated
Somatic cell
cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes
Gamete
sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell
Homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
Autosome
chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
Sex chromosome
chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics
Sexual reproduction
process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced
Fertilization
fusion of an egg and sperm cell
Diploid
cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one for an egg and one for a sperm
Haploid
cell that has only one copy of each chromosome
Meiosis
form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells, important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction
Gametogenesis
process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
Sperm
male gamete
Egg
female gamete
Polar body
haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate
Trait
characteristic that is inherited
Genetics
study of hereditary patterns and variation of organisms
Purebred
type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform
Cross
mating of two organisms
Law of Segregation
Mendel's first law stating that (1) Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes. Thus, the two copies of each gene segregate or separate during gamete formation
Gene
specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
Allele
any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome
Homozygous
characteristic of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids
Heterozygous
characteristic of having two different alleles that appears at the same locus of sister chromatids
Genome
all of an organism's genetic material
Genotype
collection of an organism's genetic information that codes for traits
Phenotype
collection of an organism's physical characteristics
Dominant
allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism's genotype
Recessive
allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype
Punnett square
model for prediction all possible genotypes resulting from a cross, or mating
Monohybrid cross
cross, or mating, between organisms that involves only one pair of contrasting traits
Testcross
cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
Dihybrid cross
mating between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits
Law of Independent Assortment
Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate form from one another during gamete formation
Probability
likelihood that a particular event will happen
Crossing over
exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
Genetic linkage
tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together