Terms in this set (48)

"These directive utterances with collective sanction, which try to impose patterns of behavior upon the individual in the interests of the whole group, are among the most interesting of linguistic events...There is probably no kind of utterance that we take more seriously, that affects our lives more deeply...In its laws, society makes its mightiest collective effort to impose predictability upon human behavior" (68-69).
Such language is almost always phrased in words that have affective connotations.

Such directive utterances are often accompanied by appeals to supernatural powers ("So help me God").

If God does not punish us for failing to carry out our agreements, it is made clear, either by statement or implication, that our society will. (can be put in jail for breaking laws)

The formal and public utterance of the vows may be preceded by preliminary disciplines of various kinds. (initiations for frats, ceremonies before priesthood)

The utterances of the directive language may be accompanied by other activities or gestures, all calculated to impress the occasion on the mind. (people stand when judge enters room, people wear gowns for commencement and weddings)

The uttering of the vows may be immediately followed by feasts, dancing, and other joyous manifestations. Again, the purpose seems to be to reinforce still further the effect of the vows. (receptions after weddings, after graduations)

In cases where the first utterance of the vows is not made a special ceremonial occasion, the effect on the memory is usually achieved by frequent repetition. (classrooms say pledge of allegiance every morning, awards displayed in a common area)