Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, March 6 from 3–4 PM PST
Upgrade to remove ads
finals voacb for ss
Terms in this set (58)
Jim Crow Law response/overturning
The Jim Crow laws were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until 1965 mandating de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S. states (of the former Confederacy), starting in 1890 with a "separate but equal" status for African Americans. Conditions for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those provided for white Americans. This decision institutionalized a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages. De jure segregation mainly applied to the Southern United States, while Northern segregation was generally de facto — patterns of segregation in housing enforced by covenants, bank lending practices and job discrimination, including discriminatory union practices for decades.
Brown v. Board of Education I (1954) and II (1955)
Most students know Brown v. Board of Education as the case that swiftly desegregated the South and brought in a new age of equality. This is far from the case. Though it may seem as a success, Brown v. Board didn't accomplish much at first. It only addressed de jure segregation, segregation by law, and not de facto segregation, segregated by individual actions. It said to desegregate with all deliberate speed but schools were closed for desegregating and many though this wasn't enough to compel the schools in the south to desegregate. With this leeway, Southern leaders organized massive resistance and change wasn't felt until President Eisenhower sent National Guard troops into Little Rock, Arkansas (after Brown v. Board of Ed II). Brown v board of ed 2 further enforcement brown v board of ed one.
in the Cold War period after World War II, U.S. foreign-policy pronouncement by President Dwight D.Eisenhower promising military or economic aid to any Middle Eastern country needing help in resisting communist aggression.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established by Eisenhower. Directed billions of dollars to toward missile development. They landed two men on the moon with the help of President JFK. They sparked a lot of interest in science and technology.
Election of 1960
Was between JFK and Richard Nixon. Television was said to have tipped the scales to JFk because of his good looks. JFK won the electoral vote comfortably but barely won the popular vote. It was revolutionary because JFk was the first Roman Catholic to be president.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961, an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government. On Apr. 17, 1961, an armed force of about 1,500 Cuban exiles landed in the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the south coast of Cuba.
JFK's role in Vietnam (advisers and CIA)
Tried to avoid involvement as much as possible through action like the "flexible response" however once he organized a coup against the leader of South Vietnam, a graceful and discreet removal of involvement became more and more unlikely as involvement was inevitably escalating → by the time of his death, he had ordered more than fifteen thousand American men to Vietnam
a member of the communist guerrilla movement in Vietnam that fought the South Vietnamese government forces 1954-75 with the support of the North Vietnamese army and opposed the South Vietnamese and US forces in the Vietnam War.
Escalation and limited war-
The viet cong attacked an american air base in south korea and many taunted Johnson saying he was too eager to back right wing regimes with rifle toting troops. The president in response to the attack ordered air raids on north vietnam and us troops on land. Johnson thought by step by step escalation north vietnam would be defeated. This was very untrue because of how strong the viet kong where and the north koreans were.
Operation Rolling Thunder-
regular full scale bombing attacks against north vietnam.These bombings actually strengthened viet kongs will to resist and every time the us stepped up fire power so did veit kong with more guns and men. Were among the first steps of Johnson's "escalation" strategy
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A series of trails that ran along Laos/Cambodia and Vietnam borders; used by the Vietcongs as a route to the South; also used as a supply route for food, weapons and equipment; contained "dummy routes" to confuse American troops; surrounded by jungles which made it difficult to follow, especially from an aerial view; American response: use of defoliants (a chemical used to remove the leaves from trees and plants) to kill off greenery that gave cover to the trail → were not able to remove all of the greenery as the trail stretched over 80 kilometers
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban missile crisis definition. A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the "hottest" periods of the cold war.
JFK and Civil Rights
When John F. Kennedy became president in 1961, African Americans throughout much of the South were denied the right to vote, barred from public facilities, subjected to insults and violence, and could not expect justice from the courts. In the North, black Americans also faced discrimination in housing, employment, education, and many other areas. But the civil rights movement had made important progress, and change was on the way.Across the nation, more than 70 percent of African Americans voted for Kennedy, and these votes provided the winning edge in several key states. When President Kennedy took office in January 1961, African Americans had high expectations for the new administration.But Kennedy's narrow election victory and small working margin in Congress left him cautious. He was reluctant to lose southern support for legislation on many fronts by pushing too hard on civil rights legislation. Instead, he appointed unprecedented numbers of African Americans to high-level positions in the administration and strengthened the Civil Rights Commission. He spoke out in favor of school desegregation, praised a number of cities for integrating their schools, and put Vice President Lyndon Johnson in charge of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. Attorney General Robert Kennedy turned his attention to voting rights, initiating five times the number of suits brought during the previous administration.MLK and March on Washington-On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 Americans gathered in Washington, D.C., for a political rally known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Organized by a number of civil rights and religious groups, the event was designed to shed light on the political and social challenges African Americans continued to face across the country. The march, which became a key moment in the growing struggle for civil rights in the United States, culminated in Martin Luther King Jr's "I Have a Dream" speech, a spirited call for racial justice and equality.
A plan by Johnson which was unique and very new gave old people health insurance.Started in 1965 and was hated by the American medical association but welcomed by millions of older americans who had no health insurance. They created entitlements which means giving certain americans these rights and it was part of a rights revolution which materially improved many americans lives but undermined the federal government's financial health. Significantly helped lower poverty among elderly.
War on Poverty
Johnson took Kennedy's stalled tax bill through congress and added proposals for a billion dollar "war on poverty". Johnson voiced special concerns for members of Appalachia, where sickness of the soft coal industry had left tens of thousands of mountain folk on the human slag heap. He dubbed these programs "Great society". It was a new dealish type economic and social welfare measures aimed at transforming the american way of life.
Gave health insurance to the poor. Started in 1965 and was welcomed by poor who couldn't afford proper medical treatment but not liked by the American medical association. They created entitlements which means giving certain americans these rights and it was part of a rights revolution which materially improved many americans lives but undermined the federal government's financial health.
Immigration Act of 1965
abolished the national origins quota system that had been in place since 1921. It also doubled the amount of immigrants allowed to enter annually. It also for the first time, set limits on immigrants from the western hemisphere. It also provided admission of close relatives of united states citizens outside those numerical limits. To people's surprise it changed from european immigrants to asian and south america making america more diverse.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Lyndon Johnson got this passed as the ultimate tribute to JFK who had supported it but died before he could get it passed. It banned racial discrimination in public places and most private facilities open to the public. It also strengthened the government's power to end segregation in school.
Office of Economic Opportunity
Was the agency responsible for administering most of the War on Poverty programs created as part of United States President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society legislative agenda. Congress doubled the appropriation of the Office of Economic Opportunity to $2 billion and granted more than $1 billion to redevelop the gutted hills.
Voting Rights Act
One of the four big reforms. This act was passed during the civil rights movement and had to due with racial discrimination. It was marked as the end of the civil rights movement. It eliminated various devices, such as literacy tests, that had traditionally been used to restrict voting by black people.
Housing and Urban Development
A government agency created to support community development and increase homeownership; when it was established, Johnson created this and the first black cabinet member ever was assigned here. He named the first black cabinet secretary in the nation's history, respected economist Robert C. Weaver.
The equal employment opportunity commision which was created by the civil rights act of 1964. It eliminated discrimination in hiring employees. If EEOC officials find any source of discrimination, the EEOC has the power to file a lawsuit; EEOC also tries to prevent discrimination in the workplace through outreach, educational, and technical assistance programs. created to eliminate discrimination against a person's race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age (when over 40), disability, or genetic information;
A project to combat poverty. It helped the education for underprivileged youth and worked very well.It decreased infant mortality rates in minority communities as general health conditions were improved. LBJ started it as part of great society.
Vietnam gulf of tonkin incident
name given to two separate confrontations involving North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin. On August 2, 1964, the destroyer USS Maddox, while performing a signals intelligence patrol as part of DESOTO operations, engaged three North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats of the 135th Torpedo Squadron. A sea battle resulted, in which the Maddox expended over two hundred and eighty 3-inch and 5-inch shells, and in which four USN F-8 Crusader jet fighter bombers strafed the torpedo boats. One US aircraft was damaged, one 14.5 mm round hit the destroyer, three North Vietnamese torpedo boats were damaged, and four North Vietnamese sailors were killed and six were wounded; there were no U.S. casualties.
Escalation and limited war
The viet cong attacked an american air base in south korea and many taunted Johnson saying he was too eager to back right wing regimes with rifle toting troops. The president in response to the attack ordered air raids on north vietnam and us troops on land.Johnson thought by step by step escalation north vietnam would be defeated. This was very untrue because of how strong the viet kong where and the north koreans were.
Operation Rolling Thunder
regular full scale bombing attacks against north vietnam.These bombings actually strengthened viet kongs will to resist and every time the us stepped up fire power so did veit kong with more guns and men.
The equal employment opportunity commision which was created by the civil rights act of 1964. It eliminated discrimination in hiring employees. If EEOC officials find any source of discrimination, the EEOC has the power to file a lawsuit; EEOC also tries to prevent discrimination in the workplace through outreach, educational, and technical assistance programs. Created to eliminate discrimination against a person's race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age (when over 40), disability, or genetic information;
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Signed by LBJ. Was supported after police brutality met protesters marching to washington on the edmund pettus bridge. Followed by 15th amendment, prohibition against denial of right to vote on the literacy tests on a nationwide basis. Act contained enforcement provisions targeted at areas of the country where Congress believed the potential for discrimination to be the greatest.
The Fair Housing Act of 1968
signed by President Johnson in 1968, was the civil rights act that prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, and sex. It also made advertising a dwelling indicating preference of discrimination based on race, religion, or national origin, illegal. Intended as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the act is considered the final great legislative achievement of the Civil Rights Era, as it helped to significantly diminish the amount of segregation at the time.
June 28th, 1969, police raid Stonewall-Inn, a local gay club located in New York City; police had a justifiable reason for raiding the club: was serving liquor without a licence; New York's gay community was sick and tired of constantly being targeted by police; citizens targeted and local sympathizers rioted against the police→ crowd stood quietly as Stonewall's employees were arrested, as they had a justifiable reason to do so, but started throwing bottles at the police as soon as innocent lesbians and drag queens began to be targeted; riots spilled into multiple other streets in the city, and were not quieted until the raid-police officers were deployed
The foreign policy decisions of president Nixon had repercussions in post Cold War America. Nixon had an individual opinion on the United States relations with China. He believed that we could sustain our relationship with China despite the fact they were communist. Also we both had the common enemy being Russia. Although, this neutral relationship was Nixon's biggest challenge. Our relationship with China was purely based on trade. The US economy was heavily based on China due to the huge percentage of exports we received from them. Therefore the repercussions were positive. If we were enemies with China it would be detrimental. Thus, it was necessary for us to become allies in order to increase stability. It wasn't because we wanted to, but because we needed to be.
Equal Rights Amendment
Passed by Congress in 1972; declared, "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."; 28 states quickly ratified the amendment→ 38 states needed it to be ratified in order for it to become an official amendment to the Constitution; the amendment died in 1982, 3 states short of success
Conservative anti-feminist spokeswoman; lead a campaign to stop the Equal Rights Amendment; claimed that feminists were just "bitter women seeking a constitutional cure for their personal problems."
Author of The Feminine Mystique; co founded the National Organization for Women (NOW) which campaigned vigorously for the ratification of the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment). Her book showed how the average house wife woman wasn't happy with her position and wanted to work. It challenged the traditional ideas that women should be house wives .
Was Reared in a generation whose values were formed well before the upheavals of the 1960s, he naturally sided with the new right on social issues. In economic and social matters alike, he denounced the activist government and failed. His political hero was Franklin D. Roosevelt. He aimed especially to win over from the Democratic column working-class and lower- middle-class white voters by implying that the Democratic party had become the exclusive tool of its minority constituents.
sought to change Americans' attitudes toward their country, their government, and the world, as the United States emerged from the 1970s. Ronald Reagan entered the White House in January 1981 promising to restore Americans' faith in their nation and themselves, to shrink "Big Government," and to defend America more aggressively, especially against the Soviet Union.
was a political movement made up especially of Protestants, opposed especially to secular humanism, and concerned with issues especially of church and state, patriotism, laissez-faire economics, pornography, and abortion. It was partly in response to the countercultural protests of the 1960s. Spearheading the New Right were evangelical Christian groups such as the Moral Majority, dedicated believers who enjoyed startling success as political fund-raisers. Reagan sided with the new right. The New Right also mimicked the New Left in some of its tactics
Impact of Reagan's policies on Great Society programs
In the 1980s Ronald Reagan's strong conservative views on the role of government and federal spending, combined with a Republican Congress's disinclination to continue social programs, led to draconian cuts for the Great Society. The huge increase in appropriations for the military during this period further tolled the bell for the two-decades-old set of domestic programs.
Supply Side Economics
Supply side economics is an economics theory built around the idea that by giving the rich enough money, tax breaks and deregulation, they will be freed from the constraints that allegedly prevent them from expanding their businesses and hiring more people.
President Reagan repeatedly requested Congress provide military aid to the contra rebels fighting against the Sandinista regime. Congress repeatedly refused, and administration grew frustrated, for a means to help the contras. Unknown to the American public, some Washington officials saw a possible linkage between the two thorny problems of the Middle Eastern hostages and the Central American Sandinistas. In 1985 American diplomats secretly arranged arms sales to the embattled Iranians in return for Iranian aid in obtaining the release of American hostages held by Middle Eastern terrorists. News of these secret dealings broke and ignited controversy. President Reagan claimed he was innocent of wrongdoing and ignorant about the activities of his subordinates, but a congressional committee condemned the "secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law" displayed by administration officials and concluded that "if the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have." Iran-Contra affair. BrE. the name given to a series of secret and illegal actions by US government officials under President Ronald Reagan. In 1985, officials in the National Security Council sold military weapons to Iran so it would help in freeing US prisoners in Lebanon.
Congress passed the Boland Amendment, which prohibited American assistance in training, equipping, and advising the anti-Communist rebel Contras in Nicaragua. A second and third Boland Amendment passed in 1983 and 1984 closed loopholes in Boland, which allowed for humanitarian aid and further limited US government support for the Contras.
a political commentator and television host, military historian, New York Times bestselling author, and a former United States Marine Corps lieutenant colonel. Criminal indictments were later brought against several individuals tarred by the Iran-contra scandal, including marine colonel Oliver North; North's boss at the National Security Council, Admiral John Poindexter; and even Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. North and Poindexter were both found guilty of criminal behavior, though all their convictions were eventually reversed on appeal.
is a retired United States naval officer and Department of Defense official. He was Deputy National Security Advisor and National Security Advisor for the Reagan administration. Criminal indictments were later brought against several individuals tarred by the Iran-contra scandal, including marine colonel Oliver North; North's boss at the National Security Council, Admiral John Poindexter; and even Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. North and Poindexter were both found guilty of criminal behavior, though all their convictions were eventually reversed on appeal.
Revolution of 1989
revolutionary wave that resulted in the Fall of Communism in the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. In China hundreds of thousands of pro democracy demonstrators thronged through Beijing's Tiananmen Square in the spring of 1989. China's aging and autocratic rulers brutally crushed the pro democracy movement. Tanks rolled over the crowds, and machine-gunners killed hundreds of protesters. In the following weeks, scores of arrested demonstrators were publicly executed after perfunctory "trials." The Solidarity movement in Poland led the way when it toppled Poland's communist government in August. The berlin wall was taken down. communist regimes collapsed
A Polish labor leader and politician of the twentieth century, known for the success of Solidarity, an independent labor union that he headed. He was periodically put under arrest by the communist government. Was the first trade union in a Warsaw Pact country that was not controlled by the Communist Party.
The Solidarity movement in Poland led the way when it toppled Poland's communist government in August. A labor union in Poland, independent of the government and of the Polish Communist party, that grew to a membership of several million in the early 1980s.
Election of 1992
was between republican george bush and democrat bill clinton. This was were the democrats took back the office . Prior they had been locked out all but 4 years since 1968. People leaned towards clinton to save the economy because with bush the dollar had declined and inflation had risen. Clinton ended up winning solely based on the promise to help the economy.
clinton lied under oath about having sexual relations with monica lewinsky so he was impeached. One of perjury and one of obstruction of justice. Two other impeachment articles, a second perjury charge. A two-thirds vote (67 senators) was required to remove Clinton from office. Fifty senators voted to remove Clinton on the obstruction of justice charge and 45 voted to remove him on the perjury charge; no Democrat voted guilty on either charge. It also involved the fact of Ms .Monica lewinski.
2002 'Axis of evil'
In his State of the Union address, President George Bush denounces Iran as part of an "axis of evil" with Iraq and North Korea. The speech causes outrage in Iran. The axis of evil are governments that BUSH accused of spreading terror and seeking weapons of mass destruction.
CIA under Eisenhower
served as leader of the FBI for longer than bobby kennedy, JFK brother had been alive when he became an attorney general. Roberts efforts were stoutly resisted by Hoover. bobby had 1000's of agents on"internal security" but only targeted a dozen agents against organized crime and virtually no attention to civil rights violations. Targeted MLK and threatened to expose him. Tried to use intimidation to stop him. Had him tracked and stalked. (paste this in quizlet)
Iran hostage crisis
In 1979 our relations with Iran weren't very good, in 1953 we had overthrew their democratically elected president, Mossadegh in a CIA coup and installed the Shah, which brought maltreatment to the people of Iran. In 1979 the Iranian people overthrew the Shah and installed the Ayatollah, who brought an Islamic based government to Iran and lead to the Iranian Hostage Crisis where 66 American citizens were held hostage for 444 days. Since we took in the Shah for medical treatment the people wanted him back for a trial and execution. By giving the Shah asylum in the US they believed that we standing with the Shah and conspiring with him in his atrocious acts during his reign In response they took the American citizens hostage as a tactic to help get the Shah back to Iran.
Nixon was ordering a break-in at the Brookings Institution, a think tank, to seize material concerning U.S. diplomacy regarding North Vietnam during the closing weeks of the 1968 presidential campaign.
On June 17, 1972 there was a break in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate building in Washington, DC. The burglars were trying to steal secret files and bug the phones.There was a conspiracy that the Nixon administration was involved because the burglary was then traced back to Nixon's reelection campaign. Nixon then tried to cover his involvement in the scandal from the FBI. During this time the U.S. was deeply involved in the Vietnam War which is why Nixon tried espionage.
more contras and sandinistas
Salvador Allende- president of chile, overthrown and died in a coup supported by CIA
Augusto Pinochet- a dictador and president, by overthrowing salvador
Nicaragua→ Sandinistas,Somoza, Daniel Ortega and Contras
Invasion of Grenada- reagan sent troops to invade the island of grenada
persian gulf war
Invasion of Kuwait: It was Saddam's idea alone to invade Kuwait. He had gambled that he could get away with seizing the tiny oil-rich nation to help pay off debts. But his gamble did not pay off -- he had misread the interests of the international community and the United States in a stable Middle East. After the invasion, Saddam defied orders to retreat and the U.N. imposed sanctions. After months of deliberations and with U.N. support, the United States and international Coalition forces launched a full-scale air and missile attack on Iraq on January 16, 1991. A ground assault followed a month later, and Saddam's troops were quickly forced out of Kuwait. The United Nations declared an end to the war on April 11, 1991.
Saddam Hussein: Saddam Hussein was president of Iraq for more than two decades and is seen as a figurehead of the country's military conflicts with Iran and the United States. In 1963, when Qasim's government was overthrown in the so-called Ramadan Revolution, Saddam returned to Iraq, but he was arrested the following year as the result of in-fighting in the Ba'ath Party. While in prison, however, he remained involved in politics, and in 1966 was appointed deputy secretary of the Regional Command. Shortly thereafter he managed to escape prison, and in the years that followed, continued to strengthen his political power.
In 1968, Saddam participated in a bloodless but successful Ba'athist coup that resulted in Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr becoming Iraq's president and Saddam his deputy. During al-Bakr's presidency, Saddam proved himself to be an effective and progressive politician, albeit a decidedly ruthless one.
Role of UN Security Council: Under the United Nations Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are: to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations; to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction
ultimatum to Saddam:My fellow citizens, events in Iraq have now reached the final days of decision. For more than a decade, the United States and other nations have pursued patient and honourable efforts to disarm the Iraqi regime without war.
That regime pledged to reveal and destroy all of its weapons of mass destruction as a condition for ending the Persian Gulf War in 1991.
Since then, the world has engaged in 12 years of diplomacy.
We have passed more than a dozen resolutions in the United Nations Security Council.
We have sent hundreds of weapons inspectors to oversee the disarmament of Iraq.
women and equality in society
The Federal Civil Rights Act (1964 ) → Guarantees equal opportunity in employment. The Civil Rights Act creates the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce workplace equality.
Educational Amendments (1972) → Goes along with the Equal pay act of 1963 and is known for Title IX which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex. two key areas that this law covers is Education in career and employment.
The Women's Rights Project of the Center for Law and Social Policy(1972) → Founded by Marcia Greenberger and its mission was to provide legal representation on women's issues in the courts, in Congress, and education.
Anti Discrimination Act (1985) → Prohibited discrimination based on gender and pregnancy for employers.
end of soviet russia and cold war
"Evil Empire"- The phrase evil empire was first applied to the Soviet Union in 1983 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Boris Yeltsin- a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999
Summit meeting in Moscow- President Ronald Reagan ends his first trip to Moscow, and his fourth summit meeting with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, on notes of both frustration and triumph. Although there were no breakthroughs or agreements on substantive issues, the "Great Communicator," as Reagan was known in the United States, was a hit with Soviet audiences. The May 1988 summit between Gorbachev and Reagan was billed as a celebratory follow-up to their breakthrough summit of October 1987. At that meeting in Washington, D.C., the two leaders had signed the groundbreaking Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear missiles from Europe.
Commonwealth of Independent States- The Commonwealth of Independent States is a regional organisation whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union. It was founded in December 1991.
end of Cold War- On Christmas Day 1991, the Soviet flag flew over the Kremlin in Moscow for the last time. A few days earlier, representatives from 11 Soviet republics met in the Kazakh city of Alma-Ata and announced that they would no longer be part of the Soviet Union. Instead, they declared they would establish a
Commonwealth of Independent States. Because the three Baltic republics had already declared their independence from the USSR, only one of its 15 republics, Georgia, remained. The once-mighty Soviet Union had fallen, largely due to the great number of radical reforms that Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev had implemented during his six years as the leader of the USSR. However, Gorbachev was disappointed in the dissolution of his nation and resigned from his job on December 25. It was a peaceful end to a long, terrifying and sometimes bloody epoch in world history.
ethnic celasneing in yugoslavia
ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia- Ethnic cleansing started in 1991 and it displaced about 2,700,000 people by mid 1992, with 700,000 seeking asylum in Europe. It was the process of expelling and trying to move the bosnian muslims and croats by the bosnian serbs with violent and terror inspiring campaigns.
Slobodan Milosevic- He was the president of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and the president of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000. He lead the Socialist party of Serbia in 1990 and rose to power as Serbian president after he claimed the need to reform the 1974 Constitution of Yugoslavia. He unleashed a new round of ethnic cleansing against the ethnic albanians in Kosovo
Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo- They were the largest ethnic group in Kosovo, but were put under ethnic cleansing in 1999, by Slobodan Milosevic
U.S. Led NATO air strikes- From March to June of 1999, they were bombing Yugoslavia as a military operation during the Kosovo war in order to stop human rights abuses in Kosovo (ethnic cleansing of Albanians). It was also the first time NATO used military force without the approval of the UN security council
Irianian révolution causes and results
Six-Day War- Happened in 1967, between Israel and its Arab neighbors ended with a United Nations-brokered ceasefire. The outnumbered Israel Defense Forces achieved a swift and decisive victory in the brief war, rolling over the Arab coalition that threatened the Jewish state and more than doubling the amount of territory under Israel's control.
Iranian Revolution Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, regime was finally overthrown in January 1979. Violent revolution was spearheaded in Iran by Muslim fundamentalists who fiercely resented the shah's campaign to westernize and secularize his country. Iranian oil stopped flowing into the stream of world commerce, shortages appeared, and OPEC again seized the opportunity to hike petroleum prices. Americans once more found themselves waiting impatiently in long lines at gas stations or buying gasoline only on specified days.
OPEC Embargo- OPEC declared an oil embargo in response to the United States' and Western Europe's support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War of 1973. The result was a rise in oil prices and the commencement of gas rationing. (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), approximately quadrupled their price for crude oil after lifting the embargo in 1974. Late in October 1973, the Arab nations suddenly clamped an embargo on oil for the United States and for other countries supporting Israel. Americans had to suffer through a long, cold winter of lowered thermostats and speedometers. Lines of automobiles at service stations lengthened as tempers shortened and a business recession deepened.
Ayatollah Khomeini- became the supreme religious leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, following many years of resistance to Shah Pahlavi. Following his appointment as Ayatollah, Khomeini worked to remove the Shah from power for his associations with the West. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the white-bearded Muslim holy man who inspired the revolutionaries, even accused the United States of masterminding an attack on the sacred Muslim city of Mecca, in Saudi Arabia.
Camp David Accords- The president's most spectacular foreign-policy achievement came in September 1978 at Camp David, the woodsy presidential retreat in the Maryland highlands a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt issuing from talks at Camp David between Egyptian President Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister Begin, and the host, U.S. President Carter: signed in 1979.
Hezbollah/Lebanon- Hezbollah - the Party of God - is a Shia Islamist political, military and social organisation that wields considerable power in Lebanon. It emerged with the help of Iran during the Israeli occupation of Lebanon in the early 1980s, though its ideological roots stretch back to the Shia Islamic revival in Lebanon in the 1960s and '70s.After Israel withdrew in 2000, Hezbollah resisted pressure to disarm and continued to strengthen its military wing, the Islamic Resistance. In some ways, its capabilities now exceed those of the Lebanese army, its considerable firepower used against Israel in the 2006 war.The group also gradually became a key power broker in Lebanon's political system, and has effectively gained veto power in the cabinet. Hezbollah has been accused of carrying out a string of bombings and plots against Jewish and Israeli targets and is designated a terrorist organisation by Western states, Israel and Gulf Arab countries. Some Lebanese consider Hezbollah a threat to the country's stability, but it is enduringly popular within the Shia community.
Marine Barrack Bombings -A suicide bomber crashed an explosives- laden truck into a United States Marine barracks on October 23, 1983, killing more than two hundred marines. President Reagan soon thereafter withdrew the remaining American troops, while miraculously suffering no political damage from this attack.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Brinkley Chapter 29 Study Guide
History 2210 final
History Final 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
U BETTER STUDY ITS ALL ON U AND YOU HAVE THE SKILLS
CHRIS GUIDE TO A+ on terms
Spanish movie quizlet
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Law Day 21
Dolan Hall Block 5 Unit 4
Pathophysiology Chapter 4 Key Points
Social Studies Methods