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101 terms

BIO FINAL

STUDY
PLAY
The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mothers womb is called
Placenta
What vitamin routinely is given by injection to all infants at birth?
K
Children will more effectively develop the breakfast eating habit if
parents eat breakfast with them
The label on a package of Kool Aid indicates that it contains vitamin C,the amount listed is a percentage of the
Daily Value
Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called
Anthropometrics
The most important dietary approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is to
lose body fat
What includes all energy-yielding substances?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protein
Breast Milk Contains Approximately how many kcalories per quart
640
this is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus
the first trimester of pregnancy
the most sensitive indicator of long-term nutrient intake in a child is
height
the best exercise for overweight people is
bicycling
Promising dessert to a child when vegetables are eaten is
never recommended
True or false: Corn oil contains cholesterol
false
what is the composition of the triglyceride form of fats
Fatty acids and Glycerol
True or False: There is significant evidence that prenatal supplements for pregnancy are harmful
false
Which of the statements following is true:
1. supplements of vitamin A can be dangerous

2.. supplements commonly contain iron and folate

3. physicians routinely prescribe them
all of them
According to the American academy of pediatrics, the best age to introduce solid foods into the infants diet is
4-6months
The dietary guidelines for Americans recommends which of the following?
Being physically active each day
Cardiovascular disease risk factors include
HDL cholesterol > 40 mg/dl
Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?
Insulin
Minerals are classified in which way?
Trace minerals are needed in amounts 100 mg per day or less
Carol has heartburn during her pregnancy, what would NOT be a good recommendation for her?
Laying down after she eats
A vegetarian who excludes animal flesh but consumes such products as milk and eggs is referred to as a(n)
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian
True or false: The major reason why women do not breast-feed is lack of information
true
Current factors that can influence American food habits negatively are
The time-oriented, hurried lifestyle leading to many meals eaten away from home
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
Protects stomach cells from gastric juices
High protein diets may be harmful for
those with kidney disease
The body stores excess protein as
triglycerides
Iron stores present at birth generally are depleted by _____ to _____ months
4; 6
Susie is 3 years old. At her most recent checkup she was at the 20th percentile for height. This means that
79 of 100 girls her age are taller than she is
To which body part does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide
Lungs
Body weight to kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields
The body mass index
A vegetarian who eats only plant foods is a
Vegan
During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate
Essential fatty acids- linoleic acid (omega 6) and alpha-linolenic (omega 3)
Obesity during pregnancy is associated with
High blood pressure, diabetes during pregnancy, and surgical complications
Lactose intolerance is caused by a
lactase deficiency
True or false: Increased risk of developing food allergies is an advantage to breast feeding
false
True or false: Fewer gastrointestinal risk of developing food allergies, decreased financial costs are all advantages of breast feeding
true
The most active area for the absorption of nutrients into the body is the
Small Intestine
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
Epiglottis
Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?
Portal vein
The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the extra calcium she needs is to consume
Low-fat milk and cheese
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
Two monosaccharides
Maggie has anorexia nervosa and regularly starves herself. She is likely to be in a state of
Negative protein balance
The acronym RDA stands for
Recommended Dietary Allowance
Basal metabolism is the energy expended
When resting, but awake, and in a fasting state
What substance helps suspend fat in a watery digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes?
Bile
Which of the following is true about the way we should eat to achieve good nutritional status?
Eat a wide variety of foods because no single natural food meets all human nutrient needs
Which of the following is not a class of nutrient?
Alcohol
All of the following are true of high quality protein except
It provides 7 kcal/g of energy
For which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted?
Marathon
Approximately what percentage of obese children become obese adults?
40%
Xenical is a weight loss drug that works in the digestive system
To block digestion of about one-third of the fat in the food we eat
The new WHO growth standards stress that _______________ is the biological norm for infant nutrition
Breastfeeding
The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is
Vitamin D
During each feeding, human milk changes composition in which of the following ways?
Fat increases
Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?
Monounsaturated
Consumption of non-food items such as laundry starch, ice and dirt is known as
Pica
A saturated fatty acid contains
No double bonds
The hormone that triggers "let down" or milk release is
Oxytocin
An adverse reaction to a food that does not involve the immune system is
A food intolerance
Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food?
Appetite
A function of the large intestine is to absorb
Water and minerals
The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of the sun's heat and light is called
Photosynthesis
True or false : Most overweight infants become normal weight preschoolers
true
All of the following describe the characteristics of fat cells except

A.
The number of fat cells decreases when fat is lost from the body
B.
The storage capacity for fat depends on both fat cell number and fat cell size
C.
The number increases when storage capacity has reached its limit
D.
The body's ability to store fat is limitless
A. The number of fat cells decreases when fat is lost from the body
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic
Infants need fat because it aids in absorption of several vitamins and also helps the ______________ to develop.
Nervous system
Extra kcalories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?
Second and third
Which of the following is true about the lymphatic system?

A.
The specialized fluid carried by this system is blood
B.
This system never intersects with the bloodstream
C.
It is not involved in the transport of nutrients
D.
It is important for transporting fat-soluble nutrients
It is important for transporting fat-soluble nutrients
High-fiber diets are
Not recommended for infants
Which statement about vitamins is true?

A.
Cannot be stored by the body
B.
Are inorganic
C.
Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
D.
Directly supply energy
Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
The vitamin that prevents beriberi is
Thiamin
Cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death in the US, after _________________.
heart disease
________________ tumors stay in one place.
benign
Which of the following is NOT associated with increased cancer risk?

A.
viruses
B.
heredity
C.
environment
D.
smoking
E.
None of the above
None of the above
Which of the following is associated with increased cancer risk?
A.
Vitamin C
B.
Vitamin E
C.
Calcium
D.
BBQed foods
BBQed foods
Which of the following in not one of the 'Five things you should remember about preventing cancer'?

A.
Eat lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
B.
Discover the pleasure of physical activity
C.
Stay tobacco free
D.
Enjoy a low-fat diet
E.
Protect yourself from the sun between 4:00 pm and 9:00 pm
Protect yourself from the sun between 4:00 pm and 9:00 pm
Diabetes is the ___________ leading cause of death from disease in the U.S.
Sixth
Which type of diabetes has the following symptoms:
• Caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cells
• Can occur at any age
• Patients require exogenous insulin - injections or pumps
Type 1
Which is not a symptom of Diabetes?

A.
Increased thirst
B.
Increased urination
C.
Increased hunger
D.
Unusual weight change
E.
None of the above
None of the above
Which is not a key hormone produced by the Islets of Langerhans?
Grehrin
Which is not a key effect of Insulin?
Promotes breakdown of tissue fat and protein
A Criteria for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus is
Fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl
Which of the following is NOT an element of a therapy plan for diabetes?
A.
Diet
B.
Exercise
C.
Ensuring adequate insulin activity
D.
Controlling stress
E.
None of the above
None of the above
What is another name for a stroke?
Cerebrovascular accident
Which of the following is NOT a type of lipoprotein?

A.
VLDL
B.
LDL
C.
HDL
D.
VHDL
E.
None of the above
None of the above
Which item below is not a recognized criteria for diagnosing Metabolic Syndrome?

A.
Waist circumference greater than 40 inches for women
B.
Triglycerides over 150 mg/dl
C.
Blood pressure over 129/84 mm Hg
D.
Fasting blood glucose over 109 mg/dl
E.
None of the above
Waist circumference greater than 40 inches for women
About what percentage of American adults have hypertension?
25%
Kidney function does not include which of the following?

A.
Maintain pH
B.
Maintain water
C.
Maintain salt
D.
Maintain blood volume
E.
None of the above
None of the above
Which of the following is NOT a recognized major nephron function?

A.
Filtration
B.
Reabsorption
C.
Secretion
D.
Excretion
E.
None of the above
None of the above
How many stages of chronic kidney disease are recognized?
5
Which is not a kidney stone type?
None of the above
Following surgery there is an increased need for protein. Which is not a valid reason?

A.
Building tissue for wound healing
B.
Controlling shock
C.
Resisting infection
D.
Controlling edema
E.
None of the above
None of the above
A good definition of Parenteral would be:
nourishment through small peripheral veins or large central vein
Which of the following is not a symptom of Dumping Syndrome:

A.
Cramping and feeling of fullness.
B.
Rapid pulse
C.
Wave of weakness and cold sweating
D.
Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
E.
None of the above
None of the above
Ileostomy involves which part of the digestive system?
Esophagus
Anorexia patients do not exhibit which sign:

A.
Eating very little food
B.
Exercising compulsively
C.
Hiding and storing food
D.
Withdrawing from friends and family
E.
None of the above
None of the above
Which item below would not fit the profile of a Bulimic?

A.
Mature adults
B.
Manifest impulsive behavior
C.
Predisposed to becoming overweight
D.
Tried frequent weight-reduction diets as a teen
E.
None of the above
Mature adults
Even if one tries to vomit out their meals, what percentage if the calories are absorbed?
33 - 75%
How many Calories are there in one gram of protein?
4