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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

this emerging, infectious disease has become one of the world's major health problems

appropriate technology

this technology includes those projects and techniques that fit both the culture and physical setting of people involved

brundtland commision

the UN established the world commission on environment and development, which investigated the state of the world's environment and proposed solutions in a 1987 document, "Our Common Future"

emerging infectious diseases

contagious diseases, including AIDS, SARS and recent influenzas, that are recently recognized in the medical literature and have spread widely since their discoveries

green revolution

development approach, promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation, focuses on the transfer of high-technology farming techniques, including new seeds and chemical fertilizers, to less developed areas of the world


a category of contagious, pulmonary diseases that can spread rapidly through populations

intellectual property rights

abstract ideas, knowledge, and creations can be owned just like physical property


a disease that passes from human to human and is found spreading in communities in countries in at least two WHO readions


highly contagious, widely fatal disease was contained in the 1980s but remains a terrorist threat


holds that development projects must be designed for long-term success

balance of power

an interaction system of states, or groups, which choose not to use force because they consider the potential cost too high

collective security

strategy of IGO members when they act together militarily in responding to an aggressor state

conventional war

states battle each other using their formally organized military forces complete with uniforms, differentiated specializations, command and control hierarchies, training, and a sense of historical mission


direct negotiations b/w two or more governments or IGOs

economic sanctions

actions designed to encourage states to change their policies by cutting off trade and financial flows

European union

regional IGO furthest along in a process of functional integration


an attempt to exterminate members of a specific cultural group

great powers

states that can directly affect events outside of their world region

guerilla war

organized groups opposing a political system use hit-and-run tactics and then blend into the local population as their main defense

human rights

such individual rights that all people possess

humanitarian intervention

threats to the peace are managed by deploying peacekeeping troops and delivering food and medical aid


the realtionships and resources that persons, groups, organizations, and states are able to use for their own benefit and to enhance their own power

international anarchy

the absence of common political rule

international rule of law

states follow commonly accepted rules of behavior and orderly processes for peacefully working out conflicting interests


states intervene with force to counter an aggressor state without the affected state's consent

just war

military action taken in self defense, abiding by accepted rules of warfare such as preventing the slaughter of civilians and prisoners of war


officials talk to each other directly or through a designated intermediary

nuclear war

category of war involves the use of weapons produced by the release of molecular energy


conflicts are handled with the use of violence


attitudes and points of view resulting from a person's particular cultural-historical, philosophical, ideological, or religious preconceptions

perceptual selectivity

ignoring or misinterpreting information because of prior assumptions


decision-making process characterized by negotiation and bargaining


persons, groups, organizations, or states can influence other to do what they want


emotional appeals attempting to affect the opinions of other, typically through mass communications

regional powers

sates whose policies can have a direct effect on their neighbors

revisionist states

states want more power and generally adopt a policy of increasing their military forces

show of force

when a state deploys its military forces as an implied threat

small powers

decisions these states make affect their own people but have very little impact on other states


states in the international system with sovereignty accept no authority as superseding their own

status quo states

states satisfied with their existing level of power


states can maintain their direct effect on events in most areas of the world at the same time

tacit negotiations

sending a message to another government without telling it directly or using an intermediary


uses violent incidents perpetrated by small numbers of people for the purpose of calling into question or destabilizing an existing political system

universal declaration of human rights

adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1949, lists individual freedoms all humans should be granted, including economic well-being and religious and political rights


politically motivated violent acts

world court

international tribunal has jurisdiction only in cases involving states


local governments establish and enforce laws covering most governmental functions except foreign policy and defense

cultural rights

all person should be able to participate in the cultural life of their choice and conduct their own cultural practices, subject to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms


a state presents a credible military threat to a potential enemy

fragile, failing, failed states

sates where the government cannot effectively enforce its policies within its own territory

functional interdependence

integrating the economies of states will make war virtually impossible

security dilemma

policy problem faced when states that want ot build up their military strength

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