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52 terms

TEST3 Terms from KK

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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
this emerging, infectious disease has become one of the world's major health problems
appropriate technology
this technology includes those projects and techniques that fit both the culture and physical setting of people involved
brundtland commision
the UN established the world commission on environment and development, which investigated the state of the world's environment and proposed solutions in a 1987 document, "Our Common Future"
emerging infectious diseases
contagious diseases, including AIDS, SARS and recent influenzas, that are recently recognized in the medical literature and have spread widely since their discoveries
green revolution
development approach, promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation, focuses on the transfer of high-technology farming techniques, including new seeds and chemical fertilizers, to less developed areas of the world
influenza
a category of contagious, pulmonary diseases that can spread rapidly through populations
intellectual property rights
abstract ideas, knowledge, and creations can be owned just like physical property
pandemics
a disease that passes from human to human and is found spreading in communities in countries in at least two WHO readions
smallpox
highly contagious, widely fatal disease was contained in the 1980s but remains a terrorist threat
sustainability
holds that development projects must be designed for long-term success
balance of power
an interaction system of states, or groups, which choose not to use force because they consider the potential cost too high
collective security
strategy of IGO members when they act together militarily in responding to an aggressor state
conventional war
states battle each other using their formally organized military forces complete with uniforms, differentiated specializations, command and control hierarchies, training, and a sense of historical mission
diplomacy
direct negotiations b/w two or more governments or IGOs
economic sanctions
actions designed to encourage states to change their policies by cutting off trade and financial flows
European union
regional IGO furthest along in a process of functional integration
genocide
an attempt to exterminate members of a specific cultural group
great powers
states that can directly affect events outside of their world region
guerilla war
organized groups opposing a political system use hit-and-run tactics and then blend into the local population as their main defense
human rights
such individual rights that all people possess
humanitarian intervention
threats to the peace are managed by deploying peacekeeping troops and delivering food and medical aid
interests
the realtionships and resources that persons, groups, organizations, and states are able to use for their own benefit and to enhance their own power
international anarchy
the absence of common political rule
international rule of law
states follow commonly accepted rules of behavior and orderly processes for peacefully working out conflicting interests
intervention
states intervene with force to counter an aggressor state without the affected state's consent
just war
military action taken in self defense, abiding by accepted rules of warfare such as preventing the slaughter of civilians and prisoners of war
negotiation
officials talk to each other directly or through a designated intermediary
nuclear war
category of war involves the use of weapons produced by the release of molecular energy
peace
conflicts are handled with the use of violence
perceptions
attitudes and points of view resulting from a person's particular cultural-historical, philosophical, ideological, or religious preconceptions
perceptual selectivity
ignoring or misinterpreting information because of prior assumptions
politics
decision-making process characterized by negotiation and bargaining
power
persons, groups, organizations, or states can influence other to do what they want
propaganda
emotional appeals attempting to affect the opinions of other, typically through mass communications
regional powers
sates whose policies can have a direct effect on their neighbors
revisionist states
states want more power and generally adopt a policy of increasing their military forces
show of force
when a state deploys its military forces as an implied threat
small powers
decisions these states make affect their own people but have very little impact on other states
sovereignty
states in the international system with sovereignty accept no authority as superseding their own
status quo states
states satisfied with their existing level of power
superpowers
states can maintain their direct effect on events in most areas of the world at the same time
tacit negotiations
sending a message to another government without telling it directly or using an intermediary
terrorism
uses violent incidents perpetrated by small numbers of people for the purpose of calling into question or destabilizing an existing political system
universal declaration of human rights
adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1949, lists individual freedoms all humans should be granted, including economic well-being and religious and political rights
war
politically motivated violent acts
world court
international tribunal has jurisdiction only in cases involving states
autonomy
local governments establish and enforce laws covering most governmental functions except foreign policy and defense
cultural rights
all person should be able to participate in the cultural life of their choice and conduct their own cultural practices, subject to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
deterrence
a state presents a credible military threat to a potential enemy
fragile, failing, failed states
sates where the government cannot effectively enforce its policies within its own territory
functional interdependence
integrating the economies of states will make war virtually impossible
security dilemma
policy problem faced when states that want ot build up their military strength