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A&P I Exam 3 Chapter 23

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following is not part of the upper respiratory system?

a.Nose
b.Oral cavity
c.Pharynx
d.Trachea
e.Nasal meatuses
a.Nose
The conducting zone does NOT act to

a.Clean air of debris
b.Conduct air into the lungs
c.Add water to air
d.Warm air
e.All of the above
e.All of the above
Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?

a.Pharynx
b.Larynx
c.Paranasal sinuses
d.Trachea
e.Esophagus
a.Pharynx
This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea.

a.Arytenoid cartilage
b.Epiglottis
c.Nasopharynx
d.Thyroid cartilage
e.Paranasal sinus
b.Epiglottis
This is located anterior to the esophagus and carries air to the bronchi.

a.Trachea
b.Larynx
c.Nasopharynx
d.Pharynx
e.None of the above
a.Trachea
This is the primary gas exchange site.

a.Trachea
b.Bronchiole
c.Nasal sinuses
d.Alveolus
e.Bronchus
d.Alveolus
Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs?

a.stratified squamous epithelium with keratin
b.ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
c.cilated cuboidal epithelium with goblet cells
d.transitional epithelium with cilia
e.columnar connective tissue with goblet cells
b.ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus?

a.stratified squamous epithelium
b.ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
c.simple squamous epithelium
d.hyaline cartilage
e.columnar connective tissue with goblet cells
c.simple squamous epithelium
These are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant.

a.Type I alveolar cells
b.Type II alveolar cells
c.Type III alveolar cells
d.Surface cells
e.Macrophages
b.Type II alveolar cells
This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells.

a.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
b.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
c.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood
d.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood
b.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
This is direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs.

a.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
b.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
c.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood
d.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood
c.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood
Exhalation begins when

a.A. Inspiratory muscles relax
b.B. Diaphragm contracts
c.C. Blood circulation is the lowest
d.Both a and b
e.All of the above
a.A. Inspiratory muscles relax
This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily.

a.High surface tension
b.Low surface tension
c.High compliance
d.Low compliance
e.None of the above
c.High compliance
The conducting airways with the air that does not undergo respiratory exchange are known as the

a.Inspiratory volume
b.Expiratory reserve volume
c.Minimal volume
d.Residual volume
e.Respiratory dead space
e.Respiratory dead space
Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?

a.Bound to hemoglobin
b.Bound to oxygen
c.Dissolved in plasma as a gas
d.Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions
e.Diffusion
d.Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions
When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhemoglobin _______ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ________________.

a. increases, increases
b. Increases, decreases
c. Decreases, increases
d. Decreases, decreases
e. Does not change, does not change
c. Decreases, increases
Which is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?

a.pH of blood
b.Partial pressure of the oxygen
c.Amount of oxygen available
d.Temperature
e.Respiratory rate
e.Respiratory rate
Describe the neural, chemical, and physical changes that increase the rate and depth of ventilation during exercise.
Anticipation of exercise generates neural input to the limbic system. Sensory input is provided from proprioceptors and motor input is provided from the primary motor cortex. As the partial pressure of oxygen falls due to increased consumption, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and the temperature increase due to metabolic activity in muscle fibers. Also, carbon dioxide is added via the buffering of the hydrogen ions produced as a result of lactic acid production. Chemoreceptors sense the changes in partial pressure and notify the medullary rhythmicity center to increase the rate and depth of breathing.
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
1)Movement of air
2)pH Homeostasis
Describe the movement of air from the nose to the alveoli.
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Primary Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi, Tertiary Bronchi, Bronchioles, Terminal Bronchioles, Respiratory Bronchioles, Alveolar Ducts, Alveolar Sac, Alveolus
Interior chamber of nose.
Nasal Cavity
Increase surface area of nasal cavity
Nasal Conchae
Connects nasal cavity with larynx.
Pharynx
Air-filled cavities in skull bones.
Sinuses
Lymphoid tissue in pharynx.
Tonsils
Cartilaginous boxlike structure containing vocal folds.
Larynx
Opening between vocal folds.
Glottis
Flops over larynx opening in swallowing.
Epiglottis
Windpipe extending from larynx to bronchi.
Trachea
Bronchi that enter lungs.
Primary Bronchiole
Tiny air sacs at ends of alveolar ducts.
Alveoli
Membrane covering outer surface of lung.
Visceral Pleural
Membrane lining inner wall of thorax.
Parietal Pleural
Potential space between pleurae.
Pleural Cavity
Describe the structural changes in the tissue lining the inside of the respiratory system from the trachea to the alveoli. How does that structural change correspond to its function. Describe the analogy of the trachea being like a mucus escalator.
Pseudostratified in primary, secondary, tertiary. Ciliated columnar in bronchioles. Simple cuboidal in terminal bronchioles. Simple squamous in alveolar sacs
Describe the following Alveoli cells.
Type 1:
Type 2:
Type 3:
Type 1: Main site of gas exchange

Type 2: Secrete alveolar fluid that includes surfactant

Type 3: Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages
Define Pulmonary Ventilation.
Exchange between atmosphere and alveoli
Define External Respiration.
Exchange between alveoli and blood capillaries
Define Internal Respiration.
Exchange between blood capillaries and body tissues
True or False: Negative pressure in the pleural cavity is necessary for inspiration.
True
True or False: Surfactant prevents collapse of alveoli.
True
True or False: Forceful expiration involves contraction of abdominal and internal intercostal muscles.
True
True or False: Pneumothorax causes collapse of a lung.
True
True or False: Breathing exchanges air between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs.
True
Air flows into the lungs during _______ and out of the lungs during _________. During breathing, air flows from an area of _________ pressure to an area of _____ pressure. Contraction of the _______ and the _________ muscles causes an increase in the ___________ of the lungs, which decreases the air ________ within the lungs. When the muscles of inspiration relax, the _____ of the lungs is decreased, which increases the air ________ within the lungs. Air flows out of the lungs because of the _______ air pressure within the lungs. In a forecefull exhale you recruit the use of the ____________ muscle, _________ muscle,
Air flows into the lungs during ( inhalation ) and out of the lungs during ( exhalation ). During breathing, air flows from an area of ( high )pressure to an area of ( low )pressure. Contraction of the (diaphragm)and the (external intercostals)muscles causes an increase in the (volume )of the lungs, which decreases the air (pressure )within the lungs. When the muscles of inspiration relax, the (volume)of the lungs is decreased, which increases the air (pressure)within the lungs. Air flows out of the lungs because of the (Higher)air pressure within the lungs. In a forecefull exhale you recruit the use of the (internal intercostals )muscle, (abdominal)muscle,
_____ is the respiratory volume of air exhaled in quiet expiration.
Tidal volume
_____ is the respiratory volume of air that always remains in the lungs.
Residual volume
_____ is the respiratory volume known as the volume forcefully exhaled after quiet expiration.
Expiratory reserve volume
_____ is the respiratory volume known as the volume forcefully inhaled after quiet inspiration.
Inspiratory reserve volume
_____ is the respiratory volume of the maximum volume forcefully exhaled after maximum forceful inspiration.
Vital capacity
_____ is the respiratory volume that averages about 500 ml.
Tidal volume
_____ is the respiratory volume that averages about 5,800 ml.
Total lung capacity
The exchange of respiratory gases occurs by _________. In comparison to the air in the alveoli, blood returning to the lungs has a lower concentration of _______ and a higher concentration of ________. Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the __________ into the __________, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the _________ into the _______. Blood leaving the lungs is ________-rich and _________-poor. In comparison to concentrations in tissue cells, blood entering tissue capillaries has a lower concentration of ________ and a higher concentration of _______. Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the _________ into the _________, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the ________ into the ________. Blood leaving tissue capillaries is __________-rich and _________-poor.
The exchange of respiratory gases occurs by ( diffusion). In comparison to the air in the alveoli, blood returning to the lungs has a lower concentration of (oxygen)and a higher concentration of (carbon dioxide). Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the (alveoli)into the (blood), and carbon dioxide diffuses from the ( blood )into the (alveoli). Blood leaving the lungs is (oxygen )-rich and (carbon dioxide)-poor. In comparison to concentrations in tissue cells, blood entering tissue capillaries has a lower concentration of (CO2)and a higher concentration of (oxygen). Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the ( blood )into the (body tissue ), and carbon dioxide diffuses from the ( body tissue )into the (blood ). Blood leaving tissue capillaries is ( CO2 )-rich and (oxygen )-poor.
How does Dalton's law relate to gaseous transport?
Each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure known as partial pressure. Partial pressures determine diffusion of gases in the body
Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported through the blood.
Oxygen is mainly transported via hemoglobin
Carbon dioxide is transported as dissolved (7%) attached to hemoglobin (23%) and mainly as bicarbonate ions (70%)
The Respiratory Center is located in the _______, which controls the basic rhythm, and the _______, which fine tunes breathing patterns.
The Respiratory Center is located in the (Medulla), which controls the basic rhythm, and the (Pons), which fine tunes breathing patterns.
How does the Hering-Breuer Reflex influence the rate of respiration?
Prevent overinflation and deflation of the lungs
How do the Carotid and Aortic Bodies (Chemoreceptors) influence the rate of respiration?
Monitor chemical levels in the blood (H+, O2, and CO2)
How does the Limbic System influence the rate of respiration?
Emotional and Anxiety
How does Temperature influence the rate of respiration?
Increased body temp, increase breathing rate
How does pain influence the rate of respiration?
Sudden pain stops breathing
How does the irritation of pathways influence the rate of respiration?
Stop breathing and try to force irritation away
Why is the partial pressure of oxygen lower (and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide higher) in the alveoli than in the atmosphere?
It is a concentrated area and not an open system like the atmosphere
Premature infants are often given surfactant to help them breathe. How does it make breathing easier?
Prevents the closing of the alveoli
Why are tracheal cartilages C-shaped?
The esophagus sits posterior to the trachea
How could you distinguish between a left lung and a right lung after they were removed from the body?
Left lung is 10% smaller due to the cardiac notch
What is Boyle's law, and what role does it play in respiration?
In a closed system, volume is inversely proportional to pressure. Increase volume of lungs decrease pressure you draw air in
A member of the "Blues" gang with rushed into an ER after receiving a knife wound in the left side of his thorax. The diagnosis was pneumothorax and a collapsed lung. Explain exactly why the lung-collapsed and why only one lung collapsed.
If you break into the pleural cavity that pressure is equalized to the lung and the lung collapses. Each lung has its own set of membranes to prevent both lungs from collapsing
Some competitive swimmers hyperventilate before a race, thinking they can load up extra oxygen and hold their breaths longer underwater. While they can indeed hold their breaths longer, it is not for the reason they think. Furthermore, some have lost consciousness and drowned. What is wrong with this thinking, and what accounts for the loss of consciousness?
You drastically lower your carbon dioxide and essentially trick your body into thinking you have more oxygen than you do. Low levels of oxygen can cause you to faint underwater and drown.
What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? Distinguish between the two major forms.
Obstructed to breathing effectively.
Chronic Bronchitis - irritation of the bronchioles
Emphysema - wasting away of the alveoli
Why does having pneumonia make it difficult to breath?
Buildup of excessive fluids prevents the diffusion of gases
What is the main cause of asthma?
A reaction to an allergen
Why is lung cancer the leading cause of cancer deaths? What happens to your lung tissue?
Lung cancer destroys your lungs making it extremely difficult to exchange oxygen and therefore deliver oxygen to your body.
What is Eupnea?
Normal Breathing pattern
What is Tachypnea?
Increased breathing rate
What is Dyspnea?
difficulty breathing
What is Apnea?
periods of suspended breathing
What is Respiratory acidosis?
Too much CO2 in the blood
What is Respiratory alkalosis?
Too little CO2 in the blood
What is Hypercapnia?
Excessive carbon dioxide
What is Hypoxia?
Tissue deprived of oxygen
What is Hypoxemia?
Decreased oxygen pressures