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MGMT 340 - Chapter 7
Terms in this set (38)
The processes that account for an individual's intensity direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
The energy a person expands in relation to work.
- Psychological states and processes that arouse and direct behavior.
- The forces within an individual that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of that person's voluntary behavior.
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of five needs: Psychological, Safety, Social, Esteem, and Self-actualization -- in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
Needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs.
The drive to become what a person is capable of becoming.
Needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
Two-factor Theory/Motivator-Hygiene Model
A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory.
Main argument: Factors that lead to job satisfaction are different from that lead to dissatisfaction.
Motivators: Job characteristics/elements of the job associated with job satisfaction.
Motivators: achievement, learning, advancement, responsibility. Workplace motivation is not possible if hygiene factors are deficient.
Hygiene Factors: Job characteristics/elements of the job associated with job dissatisfaction.
Hygiene: working conditions, pay, and job security. They do not motivate, but their absence adversely affects job motivation and performance.
Factors, such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
McClelland's Theory of Needs
A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.
- Need for achievement (nAch): the desire t perform challenging tasks well and to meet one's own high standards.
- Need for affiliation (nAff): the desire to establish and maintain good relations.
- Need for power (nPow): the desire to exert emotional or behavioral control or influence over others.
Need for Power
(nPow) The need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise.
Need for Affiliation
(nAff) The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling.
People use other bases for comparison, not just input/output ratios.
- Counterfactuals are referent outcomes
- Outcomes and procedures interact
One implication: Managers, not just employees, use others for fairness judgments.
The degree to which peoples' reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values.
The investment of an employee's physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance.
A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.
Goal: What an individual tries to accomplish; an object or aim for action.
Goal setting: The process of formulating goals, either as an individual or a part of a collective.
Specific, difficult goals motivate more than "do your best" goals.
Individuals with specific, difficult (but achievable) goals attain higher levels of performance than those with "do your best" goals. Goal setting is important because it is an effective means of motivation.
A self-regulation of strategy that involves striving for goals through advancement and accomplishment.
A self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals by fulfilling duties and obligations.
Management by Objectives
(MBO) A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
Self-efficacy: An individual's belief in his or her own capability to organize and execute tasks and activities that are required for effective performance.
Self-efficacy is task and job specific.
Individuals who have high self-efficacy tend to adopt specific, difficult goals, and commit to them.
How can self-efficacy be developed?
- Enact mastery: prior experience
- Vicarious learning: Behavior models
- Verbal persuasion from others
- Physiological arousal: Heightened physical and or emotional state
A theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Reinforcement: The process by which the probability that a desired behavior ("operant behavior") will occur is increased, by applying consequences that depend on the behavior.
To strengthen behavior: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement
To weak behavior: Punishment, Extinction
Thorndike's Law of Effect: Behaviors with favorable consequences are repeated; those with unfavorable consequences disappear.
Skinner's Operant Theory: Systematic "if-then" linkage between target behavior and consequences is critical.
A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.
The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience.
A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice.
- Distributive Justice (DJ) - Fairness of outcomes. (Are job duties or bonuses and pay distributed fairly? How fair are they?)
- Procedural Justice (PJ) - Fairness of process. (how?)
- Interactional Justice (IJ) - Quality of interpersonal treatment, in implementation of process. (how people treat me on a daily basis?)
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
Perceived fairness of what individuals receive.
- Negative Inequity (under reward)
- Positive Inequity (over reward)
People value fair treatment: Employees strive to maintain equity (equal) considering the ration of their inputs to their outputs, relative to the perceived ratio of other employees.
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
Perceived fairness of the processes ("rules of the game") by which employee outcomes are determined.
What shapes procedural justice?
- Voice: Fair process effect, inverted U patter.
- Supervisor visibility: Climate for Procedural Justice.
- Distributive justice: ("interaction effect")
- Organizational Structure: Centralization has a negative effect on Procedural Justice. Formalization not correlated with Procedural Justice.
The degree to which employees are provided truthful explanations for decisions.
The degree to which employees are treated with dignity and respect.
Perceived fairness of the way in which employees are interpersonally treated on a day-to-day basis.
Organizational size has a negative effect on Interpersonal/Interactional Justice.
A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
Motivation is a function of:
Valence - The perceived positive or negative value attached by a person to a reward.
Instrumentality - The belief that a particular reward is contingent on a specific level of performance.
Expectancy - The perceived relationship between level of effort and level of performance.
Effort does not equal Performance
Job Performance = Effort x Ability x Situtational Constraints
Employees ask themselves three questions, which have to be answered in the affirmative if their motivation is to be maximized:
- If I give maximum effort, will it be recognized in my performance appraisal?
- If I get a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards?
-If I am rewarded, are the rewards attractive to me?
- The theory finds empirical support particularly when expectancy and instrumentality are clear to the employee.
- Clearly link desired outcomes (rewards) to targeted levels of performance.
- Communicate and provide adequate resources so that employees can reach difficult targets.
Key Elements of Motivated Behavior
Direction: The clarity of the orientation of the behavior. (ex: whether the behavior clearly helps or hurts the organization)
Intensity: The strength of the behavior (ex: whether the behavior is performed confidently or forcefully)
Persistence: The extent to which the behavior is sustained over time.
Types of Motivation
Intrinsic: caused by positive internal feelings associated with doing well on a task or performing it for its own sake. (Essential, belongs naturally)
Extrinsic: caused by the desire to attain specific outcomes. (Not part of the essential nature of someone or something, comes from something outside).
Some Intrinsic Rewards
Sense of meaningfulness: When a task is perceived to have a worthy purpose.
Sense of choice: When an individual is able to use judgement and freedom when completing tasks.
Sense of competence: When an individual has feelings of accomplishment associated with skillfully completing a task.
Sense of progress: When one feels that on is "moving forward" with the task. (ex: does the job feel the same every day?)
Existence needs: the desire for physiological and materialistic well-being.
Relatedness needs: the desire to have meaningful relationships with others.
Growth needs: the desire to grow as a human being to use one's abilities.
Maslow: Not empirically supported
ERG Theory: Mixed support
McClelland: Top managers tend to have high nPow, and low nAff
- Individuals with high nAch prefer working for organizations with individual reward systems.
- McClelland's theory has the strongest empirical support, but few organizations have been willing to invest in using the theory because measurement is time-consuming and expensive.
Specific, difficult goals lead to higher performance. Goal difficulty, the amount of effort required to achieve a goal. Goal specificity, the extent to which a goal can be quantified.
Specific, difficult goals do lead to higher performance for both simple and complex tasks, but the effect of goals is stronger when tasks are simple.
Participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set goals are all equally effective. Employees respond more positively to participative goal setting when they have greater task information and higher levels of task experience.
Goal commitment: The extent to which an individual (or team) is determined to achieve a goal.
Some Consequences of Justice Perceptions
Positive Justice Perceptions: Trust in authority
Negative Justice Perceptions: Petty theft
Fair and Accurate Procedures: Satisfaction when individuals fails
SMART goals and other goals
S - Specific
M - Measurable
A - Attainable
R - Relevant
T - Time-bound
Set specific, difficult goals
set deadlines and milestones
Promote goal commitment
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
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