92 terms

Anatomy and Physiology Final Terms List

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Nervous System
A group of cells and organs that let an animal detect changes and respond to them
Regulation
The control and coordination of life activities
Stimulus
Any change in the external or internal environment that initiates a response.
Response
The action of an organism because of a change in its environment. A change in behavior
Receptors
Organs that are sensitive to a particular type of stimulus. Ex. Eyes-light, Ears-sound
Effectors
Organs that produce a response to a stimulus. Ex. Muscles and Glands
Neuron
A specialized cell that is responsible for transmitting impulses from one part of the body to another
Impulse
An electrical or chemical change that travels through a neuron
Dendrites
The receptors in a neuron that receive impulses from other neurons or from receptors
Cyton
The cell body of a neuron that contains a nucleus
Axon
The long branch of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cyton
Myelin Sheath
The fatty insulation produced by the Schwann cells that surrounds the axon
Node of Ranvier
An area of no myelin
Terminal Branches
The end of the neuron where impulses are transmitted to the dendrites of other neurons or effectors.
Synapse
A junction (space) between adjacent nerve cells, muscles, or glands
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that are secreted by the terminal branch of a neuron and are sent into synapses. They carry the impulse from one cell to the next.
Nerve Net
The nervous system in the hydra in which impulses travel in any direction
Brain
The organ that sends and receives messages to an from all body parts. Also responsible for recording and interpreting these messages
Spinal Cord
The part that carries messages from the brain to the body and vice versa
Cerebrum
The largest part of the brain. Controls thoughts, reasoning, sense, memories, among others
Cerebellum
The part of the brain responsible for balance
Medulla
The part of the brain responsible for maintaining heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure
Reflex
A quick, protective reaction that occurs within the nervous system
Capillaries
Blood vessels that link arteries to veins
Vein
Blood Vessels that carry blood towards the heart. All veins carry deoxygenated blood except for the pulmonary vein. Contain many one way valves
Plasma
The liquid part of the blood.
Platelets
Pieces of broken cells which help your blood clot
VAVA L VAVA
V- Vena Cava
A- Right Atrium
V- Right Ventricle
A- Pulmonary Artery
L- Lungs
V- Pulmonary Vein
A- Left Atrium
V- Left Ventricle
A- Aorta
Artery
The blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart. All arteries carry oxygenated blood except for the pulmonary artery. Made up of thick round muscular walls. Carry blood under high pressure
Circulatory System
The system of your body made up of your blood, blood vessels, and heart. Responsible for delivering materials to cells and removing waste.
Open Circulatory System
The type of circulatory system present in insects where blood does not flow inside of vessels.
Heart
The muscle that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body
Atria
The top chambers of the heart
Ventricles
The bottom chambers of the heart. Much more muscular
Coronary Arteries
Arteries The arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients
Vena Cava
The largest vein in the body. Brings deoxygenated blood back into the right atrium
Pulmonary Artery
The artery that brings deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Pulmonary Vein
The vein that brings oxygenated blood back from the lungs to the left atrium
Aorta
The largest artery in the body. Brings blood out of the heart's left ventricle
Hypertension
A disease caused by very high blood pressure
Cholesterol
A fatlike chemical found in foots that can coat the inside of arteries and cause them to become narrower
Heart Attack
When a blockage in one of the coronary arteries stops blood from reaching a part of the heart.
Red Blood Cells
Cells that are responsible for carrying oxygen around the body. Contain hemoglobin
White Blood Cells
Cells that are responsible for maintaining your immune system and keeping you healthy
Skeletal System
The framework of bones in your body
Functions of Bones
Protection of body organs, Production of blood cells, Storage of calcium, Allowing a place for muscles to attach
Number of Bones
A human adult has 206 bones. Babies have more
Cartilage
Tough flexible tissue that acts like a cushion. Found between bones to prevent the bones from hitting into each other
Compact Bone
The hard type of bone found along the outer edges of the bone
Spongy Bone
The type of bone found towards the end of the bone that contains many empty spaces
Joints
The place where bones come together
Hinge Joint
A joint in which the bones only move back and forth. Ex. Knee and Elbow
Ball and Socket Joint
Allows bones to twist and turn in a circle. Allows for a full range of motion. Ex. Shoulder and Hip
Fixed Joint
Areas where bones come together that are not supposed to move. Ex. Skull
Pivot Joint
Found in the neck
Ellipsodial Joint
Found in the wrist
Muscles
Body tissues that can change shape and length and can cause movement. When muscles contract, the fibers shorten and thicken
Skeletal Muscle
Muscles that move the bones of the skeleton. Appear striated (striped) and are voluntary
Voluntary Muscles
Muscles that you can actively control
Invluntary Muscles
Muscles that you cannot actively control. Can only be controlled by the brain as needed. Ex. Heart, Muscles in stomach and intestines
Cardiac Muscle
The type of muscle that makes up the heart
Smooth Muscle
Involuntary muscle that makes up the intestines, arteries, and many other organs
Pairs of Muscles
Muscles work in pairs. When one contracts the other must relax
Ligaments
Tough fibers that hold bones to other bones
Tendons
A fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone. When muscles contract, they pull on the tendons which then pull on the bone.
Arthritis
A disease of the bone joints which results in the breakdown of cartilage in the joints
Sprain
An injury to the joint in which ligabents are torn and blood vessels are damaged
Strain
A tear of muscle fibers that occurs when there is a sudden use of poorly exercised muscles
Cramps
When a muscle contracts strongly and then cannot relax. Occurs from lack of oxygen to the muscle
Muscular Dystrophy
A disease that causes the slow wasting away of skeletal muscle tissue
Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction requiring a sex cell from each parent
Sperm
The male sex cell. Production begins during puberty and lasts for the rest of their life
Egg
The female sex cell. Produced before birth
Meiosis
A specific type of cell reproduction that results in cells with only one copy of each chromosome (23 total)
Mating
The process of a male and a female joining together to ensure that egg and sperm meet
Fertilization
The process by which the sperm enters the egg cell
Internal Fertilization
The joining of sperm and egg inside of the female's body. Increases that chances of fertiliztion
Reproductive System
The body system used to produce offspring
Testes
Present only in males. The site of sperm production
Scrotum
The sac that holds the testes and keeps them at a slightly cooler temperature
Penis
Places the sperm in the vagina
Vas Deferens
Carries the sperm from the testes to the urethra
Urethra
Carries sperm (only in males) and urine out of the body
Glands
Provide the liquid (semen) through which the sperm can swim
Ovary
Produces and stores egg cells
Fallopian Tube
Tubelike organs that carry the egg from the ovary to the uterus
Uterus
A muscular organ in which the fertilized egg develops
Vagina
A muscular tube that leads from the outside of the body to the uterus. Receives the penis during mating
Menstrual Cycle
The monthly changes that take place in the female reproductive organs
Estrogen
One of the female hormones produced by the ovary
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
Infections that can be spread through sexual contact. Can cause damage to the reproductive system as well as other body systems.
Menstruation
The process when the uterine lining leaves the body along with blood and the unfertilized egg

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