How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

EDP 256

STUDY
PLAY
In comparison to typical students, students who are exceptional
A. have both similarities and differences
B. are similar in almost every way.
C. are different in almost every way
D. have the same instructional needs, but differ in ability level
A. have both similarities and differences
The most important characteristic of exceptional learners is
A. their physical limitations
B. their disabilities
C. their abilities
D. their health concerns
C. Their abilities
Which one of the following descriptions distinguishes best between a disability and a
handicap?
A. Disabilities are functional impairments, while handicaps are disadvantages imposed on an individual
B. Disabilities are more severe than handicaps.
C. Handicaps are caused by disabilities
D. There is no real difference between the two; the terms are interchangeable.
A. Disabilities are functional impairments, while handicaps are disadvantages imposed on an individual
Blaire uses a wheel chair for mobility. She is a member of her high schoolʹs varsity cheerleading squad. For purposes of cheer leading, Blaire would be considered to have

A. a disability.
B. a handicap.
C. a disability and a handicap
D. neither a disability nor a handicap
A. a disabilty
Annette is a high school student who reads at the level of a typical third grader. She wants to get her driverʹs license, but is unable to read the driverʹs manual or the questions on the driving test. For purposes of driver training, Annette would be considered to have

A. a disability
B. a handicap
C. a disability and a handicap
D. neither a disability nor a handicap
C. a disability and a handicap
A six-month-old child who cannot walk or talk would best be described as having a(n)

A. disability
B. age-appropriate disability
C. age-appropriate inability
D. instructional inability
C. age-appropriate inability
Although no two students are alike, to be considered ʺexceptionalʺ for purposes of their school program, students must

A. have a disability related to their academic progress
B. be handicapped
C. require special educational services to achieve their potential
D. have a history of school failure
C. require special educational services to achieve their potential
When special education works as it should, the outcome for students is

A. the ability to hide their disabilities
B. the eradication of their disabilities
C. instruction in a special class
D. improved achievement and behavior
D. improved achievement and behavior
Which one of the following students most resembles the ʺtypicalʺ student who receives special education services?

A. Joe is a high school student with a physical disability.
B. Lisa is an elementary school student with mental retardation
C. Edna is a middle school student with a learning disability
D. Sam is an elementary school student with a learning disability
D. Sam is an elementary school student with a learning disability
By federal law, an exceptional student is eligible for special education when

A. a teacher recommends it
B. careful assessment indicates he or she is unable to make satisfactory progress in the
regular school program
C. a parent requests it
D. a teacher has recorded observations of behavior and assessment of academic
performance for at least two months
B. careful assessment indicates he or she is unable to make satisfactory progress in the
regular school program
Prevalence refers to

A. the number of individuals having a particular exceptionality.
B. the probability of having a child with a particular exceptionality
C. the percentage of a population having a particular exceptionality
D. the distribution of exceptionalities across different segments of the population.
C. the percentage of a population having a particular exceptionality
Each of the following may in part explain changes in prevalence of disabilities EXCEPT

A. improved diet among impoverished children
B. changes in definitions
C. changes in diagnostic criteria
D. social acceptability of some labels
A. improved diet among impoverished children
Dramatic increases in prevalence figures since 1995 have been recorded for children identified as having

A. learning disabilities
B. mental retardation
C. physical disabilities
D. autism or traumatic brain injury
D. autism or traumatic brain injury
Which one of the following provides the best definition of special education?

A. Special education uses special equipment and materials
B. Special education meets individual needs of exceptional students.
C. Special education is delivered by a certified special education teacher
D. Special education provides greater structure and smaller classes
B. Special education meets individual needs of exceptional students.
Educational services and placement for exceptional students depends on

A. student characteristics and community resources
B. teacher attitudes and student preferences
C. both student and parental preferences
D. the category of exceptionality and parental preferences
A. student characteristics and community resources
Mr. Pondʹs teaching job requires him to move from school to school, visiting classrooms to

A. He is a resource teacher
B. He is a speech and language consultant
C. He is an itinerant teacher
D. He is a diagnostic-prescriptive teacher
C. He is an itinerant teacher
Leslie is enrolled in a regular classroom, but works with a special education teacher in a
special education classroom for an hour a day. What type of special education services does Leslie receive?

A. She receives itinerant services.
B. She receives resource services
C. She receives consultation services
D. She receives diagnostic-prescriptive services
B. She receives resource services
Of the following, the special education intervention that represents the highest level of
specialization is

A. instruction by an itinerant teacher
B. instruction in a diagnostic-prescriptive center.
C. consultation by a special educator.
D. instruction in a self-contained special education classroom
D. instruction in a self-contained special education classroom
Estella has a learning disability. Her primary placement is most likely a

A. self-contained special education class
B. regular classroom
C. resource room
D. special day school
B. regular classroom
All teachers must be prepared to work with exceptional students for all of the following
reasons EXCEPT

A. Most exceptional students are in the regular classroom for part of the day
B. Most teachers have the supports needed to work in the regular classroom with students
of all exceptionalities
C. Many students who are not identified as being in need of services share characteristics of those who are.
D. Radical reforms of special education threaten special education as a separate, identifiable
part of education.
B. Most teachers have the supports needed to work in the regular classroom with students
of all exceptionalities
Communication requires

A. language
B. encoding and decoding.
C. speech
D. listening and speaking
B. encoding and decoding.
Language disorders are generally classified according to two dimensions:

A. domain and etiology.
B. primary and secondary causes.
C. phonology and cause.
D. specific impairment and expressive delay
A. domain and etiology.
The most common fluency disorder is
A. stuttering.
B. acquired aphasia
C. echolalia
D. dysarthria
A. stuttering.
The communication of ideas through an arbitrary system of symbols used according to certain rules that determine meaning is

A. speech
B. language
C. communication
D. phonology
B. language
Encoding, or sending messages, is referred to as
A. expressive language
B. receptive language
C. discourse
D. communication
A. expressive language
"Phonology" refers to linguistic rules governing

A. construction of sentences
B. sound combinations
C. patterns of language use
D. construction of word forms
B. sound combinations
Most speech disorders are addressed primarily by a speech-language pathologist, not a classroom teacher

True
False
True
A language disorder that involves problems with functional and socially appropriate communication is

A. communication
B. semantics
C. speech
D. pragmatics
D. pragmatics
The meanings and concepts people attach to words and sentences are referred to as

A. morphology
B. pragmatics
C. syntax
D. semantics.
D. semantics.
It is difficult to estimate the prevalence of communication disorders primarily because


A. there is so much overlap with other categories of disability
B. schools do not maintain accurate records in this area
C. many parents are reluctant to allow their children to receive speech and language services
D. definitions of communication disorders vary so much from state to state
A. there is so much overlap with other categories of disability
Janice has a speech disorder which causes her to speak extremely slowly. This is a disorder of

A. articulation
B. language.
C. voice.
D. fluency
D. fluency
Which statement is true concerning the comparison between the language of a normally developing child and one with a language disorder?

A. the sequence of a development is similar, but milestones are reached at later years by the child with a disorder
B. the sequence of a development is different, but milestones are reached at around the same ages
C. the sequence of development is different, and milestones are reached later by the child with a disorder
D. there is no developmental difference; they just sound different
A. the sequence of a development is similar, but milestones are reached at later years by the child with a disorder
Specific language impairment refers to

A. language disorders resulting from learning disabilities
B. language disorders with no identifiable cause
C. language disorders occurring concomitantly with other disorders
D. language disorders resulting from mental retardation
B. language disorders with no identifiable cause
Which one of the following is an example of an alternative question-asking strategy?

A. focusing on student-initiated questions
B. reducing the complexity of a question
C. increasing interaction between student and teacher so both members ask and answer
D. creating several questions with synonymous meaning
B. reducing the complexity of a question
Articulation disorders

A. are easily distinguished
B. refer to the same problem
C. are caused by biological factors
D. involve errors in word production
D. involve errors in word production
The dimensions of voice are

A. resonance, pitch, and loudness
B. resonance, loudness, and quality
C. pitch, loudness, and quality
D. resonance, pitch, and quality
C. pitch, loudness, and quality
The primary role of the classroom teacher is to facilitate development of which aspect of language?

A. phonology
B. semantics
C. pragmatics
D. morphology
C. pragmatics
Children with language disorders frequently experience problems with written language as well.
True
False
True
he ability to transfer written words into speech is

A. phonology
B. decoding
C. encoding
D. reading
B. decoding
Methods of progress monitoring that involve a cycle of teaching, followed by testing, and then reteaching as necessary are

A. dynamic assessments
B. curriculum-based language and communication assessment
C. curriculum-based management
D. response to intervention
A. dynamic assessments
Many people who are deaf believe that deafness should not be considered a disability

True
False
true
Which academic area is most affected by deafness?

A. spelling
B. writing
C. reading
D. math
C. reading
Teaching people with hearing impairments to use visual information (such as facial expressions) to understand what is being said to them is

A. speech reading
B. lip reading
C. face reading
D. gestural reading
A. speech reading
It is not unusual for students with deafness to read at what grade level when they graduate from high school?

A. first
B. fourth
C. eighth
D. twelfth
B. fourth
The focus of early intervention for children with hearing impairments is on

A. social skills.
B. language development
C. play
D. concept acquisition
B. language development
According to its advocates of American Sign Language(ASL), a major advantage of ASL over signing English systems is that

A. interpreters can easily sign in ASL while speaking in English.
B. most public schools are already using ASL in special education programs.
C. ASL provides a stronger knowledge base for developing literacy in English.
D. users of ASL score higher on tests of intelligence than users of Signing English systems
C. ASL provides a stronger knowledge base for developing literacy in English.
Which one of the following best describes American Sign Language (ASL)?

A. loosely structured group of gestures
B. system for communicating concrete ideas
C. language with its own grammatical rules
D. manual translation of English sentences
C. language with its own grammatical rules
A particularly controversial point of view held by many members of the Deaf culture is that


A. children should not receive cochlear implants to improve their hearing
B. parents should not permit children who are deaf to learn English.
C. all students who are deaf should attend residential schools until the age of 16.
D. all citizens should be required to learn American Sign Language
A. children should not receive cochlear implants to improve their hearing
The most important organ for hearing is the

A. cerumen.
B. tympanic membrane.
C. vestibular mechanism.
D. cochlea
D. cochlea
From the physiological perspective, the distinction between ʺdeafʺ and ʺhard of hearingʺ is based on


A. decibels levels detected.
B. frequency of sounds detected
C. location of hearing loss.
D. language ability.
A. decibels levels detected.
The earlier a child experiences a hearing loss, the more difficulty he/she will have in developing spoken language.

True
False
True
Sensorineural impairments are caused by problems in the

A. oval window.
B. middle ear
C. inner ear
D. conductive pathway
C. Inner Ear
Elise has a hearing loss that occurred during childhood. Her loss is best described as

A. congenital.
B. sensorineural
C. adventitious
D. conductive
C. adventitious
People who say that deafness should not be considered a disability argue that

A. there is a difference between prelingual and postlingual deafness
B. they should be considered a cultural minority with a language of their own.
C. there are advantages to being deaf, so it is not a disability
D. although deafness is a handicap, it is not a disability.
B. they should be considered a cultural minority with a language of their own.
The ʺspeech reception thresholdʺ is best defined as the

A. dB level at which one can understand speech.
B. intensity and frequency of spoken English
C. Hz level at which the average person can detect sound
D. level at which the human ear can discriminate between similar sounds.
A. dB level at which one can understand speech.
The total communication approach utilizes

A. Braille and manual communication.
B. sign language and a typewriter
C. a telephone and a computer.
D. oral and manual communication
D. oral and manual communication
In recent years, many parents and professionals have questioned the trend toward inclusion of children with hearing impairment because

A. it creates too much work for the regular teacher
B. they do not get along with the other students.
C. it reduces their opportunity to participate in the signing community.
D. they do not have the cognitive or academic skills to succeed in the mainstream
C. it reduces their opportunity to participate in the signing community.
When assessing the intellectual abilities of students with deafness, it is best to use which type of test?


A. performance
B. verbal
C. norm-referenced
D. criterion-referenced
A. performance
The ossicles function to create

A. increased sense of balance.
B. electrical impulse being sent to the brain
C. transfer of energy from the middle to the inner ear.
D. movement of the stapes
C. transfer of energy from the middle to the inner ear.
Children who are deaf reach language development milestones in sign later than hearing children do in spoken language.

True
False
False
The legal definition of blindness involves assessment of

A. color perception and visual acuity.
B. field of vision and depth perception
C. visual acuity and field of vision.
D. depth perception and color perception
C. visual acuity and field of vision.
When guiding a person who is blind, you should

A. take his or her arm and push him/her ahead of you
B. let the person take your arm and walk slightly behind you
C. walk at a slower pace than normal.
D. allow the person to go through a door ahead of you
B. let the person take your arm and walk slightly behind you
Blindness occurs most often in


A. adulthood.
B. adolescence.
C. early childhood
D. preadolescence.
A. adulthood
People who are blind have an extra sense that enables them to detect obstacles

True
False
False
Social adjustment problems for children with visual impairment are most likely the result of

A. inherent personality problems.
B. societyʹs reaction to people who are blind
C. stereotypic behaviors.
D. blindisms which cannot be controlled
B. societyʹs reaction to people who are blind
The condition that results when the cornea or lens of the eye is irregular resulting in blurred vision is known as

A. myopia
B. hyperopia
C. astigmatism
D. glaucoma
C. astigmatism
A long cane is generally preferred over a guide dog as a mobility aid for a child with blindness.

True
False
true
Itinerant teachers are more likely to be used in the area of visual impairment than in other areas of disability primarily because

A. most classroom modifications are a matter of common sense
B. blindness is a low prevalence condition
C. there are not enough teachers trained in Braille to accommodate the number of students who need training in Braille
D. regular classroom teachers can be easily trained to deal with the special needs of students with visual impairment
B. blindness is a low prevalence condition
The structure in the eye which refines and changes the focus of the light rays is the


A. lens.
B. pupil.
C. vitreous humor
D. retina.
A. lens.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is caused by


A. premature birth.
B. excessive oxygen given to infants at birth
C. fetal alcohol syndrome.
D. degenerative hereditary disease
B. excessive oxygen given to infants at birth
According to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), braille services and instruction must be made available unless all members of an individualized education program (IEP) agree that braille should not be used.

True
False
True
In general, people who are blind

A. have superior musical ability.
B. have an extra sense that enables them to detect obstacles.
C. make better use of acuity in their other senses.
D. automatically develop superior powers of concentration.
C. make better use of acuity in their other senses.
When walking, Lisa, an eighteen-year-old with blindness, has learned to attend to the subtle changes in pitch of echoes from objects as she moves towards them. Which phenomenon is responsible for these changes?

A. obstacle sense
B. Doppler effect
C. echolalia
D. tactual perception
B. Doppler effect
Which educational consideration requiring special modifications for students with little or no sight refers to a skill needed more for everyday living than for academics?

A. Braille
B. use of remaining sight
C. listening skills
D. mobility training
D. mobility training
Adults who are blind are employed at about half the rate of those who are sighted

True
False
True
The retina is

A. the contractile opening in the middle of the iris.
B. the colored portion of the eye that contracts or expands depending on the amount of light striking it
C. the back portion of the eye containing nerve fibers connected to the optic nerve
D. a transparent cover in front of the iris and pupil.
C. the back portion of the eye containing nerve fibers connected to the optic nerve
A skill used by people who are blind to aid them in acquiring mobility is


A. sequential mapping

B. spatial ability.

C. Doppler effect.

D. tactual perception.
B. spatial ability.
The majority of people who are legally blind have some useful vision.

True
False
True
David has myopia. Another term for this condition is


A. nearsightedness
B. farsightedness
C. blurred vision
D. color blindness
A. nearsightedness
Repetitive movements such as rocking, rubbing the eyes, and grimacing displayed by some people who are blind are known as

A. blindisms.

B. redundant behavior
C. stereotypic behavior
D. perseverations
C. stereotypic behavior
Brain damage caused by internal compression, stretching, or other shearing motion of neural tissues within the head is due to

A. open head injuries
B. external force
C. closed head injuries
D. degenerative conditions
C. closed head injuries
Any manual or electronic means by which a person who is unable to communicate through normal speech can express wants and needs, share information, engage in social closeness, or manage social etiquette is

A. facilitated communication
B. augmentative or alternative communication
C. manual communication
D. applied functional communication.
B. augmentative or alternative communication
The effects of TBI are always severe and permanent.

True
False
False
After age 5, and increasingly through adolescence, the primary cause of TBI is

A. assaults
B. accidental falls
C. vehicular accidents
D. gunshot wounds
C. vehicular accidents
An inherited syndrome of deaf-blindness characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, resulting in night blindness and tunnel vision is


A. Usher syndrome.
B. Asperger syndrome.
C. CHARGE syndrome
D. Down syndrome.
A. Usher syndrome.
The process of finding out why or under what circumstances problem behavior is exhibited is called

A. positive behavioral support.
B. functional behavioral assessment
C. functional behavioral analysis.
D. positive behavior management
B. functional behavioral assessment
The greatest complicating factor in most students' return to school following TBI is

A. social skills
B. physical appearance
C. physical strength
D. language or speech disorders
D. language or speech disorders
In addressing the needs of students with deaf-blindness, two priniciples that practitioners and parents should keep in mind are

A. incidental learning and structured routines
B. direct instruction and structured routines
C. direct instruction and variable routines
D. indirect instruction and structured routines
B. direct instruction and structured routines
Tactual signals that can convey a number of messages depending on the situation and context are

A. hand-under-hand guidance
B. touch cues
C. adapted signs
D. tactual signs
B. touch cues
An adaptation that may be used by a person who is deaf-blind to communicate with the public is


A. assistance cards
B. pictorial cards
C. the long cane
D. tape-recorded messages
A. assistance cards
A type of augmentative or alternative communication that requires someone else to physically assist the intended communicator that appears to have been discredited by research is

A. falsified communication
B. prompted communication
C. assisted communication
D. facilitated communication
D. facilitated communication
With intensive instruction, many persons with severe and multiple disabilities are able to live independently or semi-independently

True
False
True
Repeated physical self-abuse, such as biting, scratching, or poking oneself, head banging, and so in is called

A. self-torture
B. self-injurious behavior
C. self-abuse
D. self-stimulation
B. self-injurious behavior
Madeline's mother told her to pick up her stuffed bear and put it away. Madeline threw herself to the ground and began kicking and screaming. Madeline's mom put the bear away herself, telling Madeline, "O.K., O.K., calm down." Madeline quickly ended her tantrum and returned to playing. Which statement is true?

A. The mother's behavior makes future tantrums less likely
B. the mother's behavior reinforced the tantrum behavior
C. the mother imposted an unreasonable demand on her child
D. people with multiple severe disabilities should not be expected to do chores
B. the mother's behavior reinforced the tantrum behavior
The process of finding out why or under what circumstances problem behavior is exhibited is called

A. positive behavioral support
B. functional behavioral assessment
C. functional behavioral analysis
D. positive behavior management
B. functional behavioral assessment
Most authorities agree that the biggest obstacle faced by persons with deaf-blindness is

A. self-help skills
B. accessing information
C. navigating the environment
D. communication.
D. communication.
The term deaf-blindness includes those with a combination of low vision and mild hearing impairments

True
False
True
The process of identifying alternative, acceptable ways to communicate through teaching more appropriate behaviors and/or changing the environment to reduce the likelihood of prompting the undesirable behavior is

A. positive behavioral support
B. functional behavioral assessment
C. functional behavioral analysis
D. positive behavior management
A. positive behavioral support
Which of the following is a fundamental assumption of positive behavioral support?

A. Typically, one factor alone is responsible for the presence of specific behavior
B. each behavior carries a communicative intent
C. some behaviors have no communicative intent
D. positive behavioral support is not like to behavior modification
B. each behavior carries a communicative intent
Any repetitive, stereotyped behavior that seems to have no immediately apparent purpose other than providing sensory stimulation is

A. self-mutilation
B. self-injury
C. self-stimulation
D. tantrums.
C. self-stimulation
Muscles that are floppy or lack tone are known as

A. atonic.
B. spastic
C. choreothetoid
D. reflexive
A. atonic.
Impairments that a child is born with are referred to as

A. primary characteristics
B. congenital anomalies
C. secondary problems
D. acquired disabilities
B. congenital anomalies
In most students with orthopedic or musculoskeletal disorders, intelligence is unaffected.

True
False
True
A condition that is incurable is

A. progressive
B. episodic
C. chronic
D. acute
C. Chronic
Impairments that are the result of injury to the brain that also affect the ability to move parts of one's body are

A. neurological impairments
B. traumatic brain injuries
C. orthopedic impairments
D. neuromotor impairments
D. neuromotor impairments
Cerebral palsy is classified by

A. the limbs involved and type of motor disability
B. time period during which brain damage occurred
C. severity of the symptoms
D. the effect on intellectual functioning
A. the limbs involved and type of motor disability
The intelligence of children with cerebral palsy is


A. almost always in the range of mental retardation
B. clearly higher than the average for the general population
C. nearly the same as for the general population
D. difficult to assess due to difficulties in perception, movement, or response speed
D. difficult to assess due to difficulties in perception, movement, or response speed
The quality of life of children with epilepsy is

A. significantly lower than that of children with other disabilities
B. related to unique risk factors, different from those that affect other children with disabilities
C. related to the same risk factors that affect quality of life for others with disabilities
D. significantly better than that of children with other disabilities
C. related to the same risk factors that affect quality of life for others with disabilities
The extent of the paralysis in spina bifida depends on

A. the stage of development during which it occurs
B. the success or failure of the surgery to close the opening
C. the success or failure of the surgery to repair the nerve damage
D. the location of the spinal cord defect
D. the location of the spinal cord defect
Fetal alcohol syndrome, caused by the motherʹs use of alcohol during pregnancy, is one of the most common syndromes involving

A. muscular dystrophy and learning disabilities
B. congenital malformations and intellectual disability
C. cerebral palsy and intellectual disability
D. AIDS and intellectual disability
B. congenital malformations and intellectual disability
When a childʹs nervous system is damaged, no matter what the cause, which of the following is almost always one of the symptoms?

A. muscular weakness or paralysis
B. cognitive deficits
C. spastic movements
D. atonic movements
A. muscular weakness or paralysis
Tim has a hereditary disease characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers. His condition is

A. muscular dystrophy
B. spina bifida
C. cerebral palsy
D. multiple sclerosis
A. muscular dystrophy
A teacher who fails to report child abuse or neglect may be held legally liable.

True
False
True
Rheumatoid arthritis is a potentially debilitating disease that

A. causes rapid deterioration of muscle tissue
B. is characterized by pain in and around the joints and muscles
C. is associated with neurological degeneration
D. occurs only in the elderly
B. is characterized by pain in and around the joints and muscles
A lung disease characterized by episodic inflammation or obstruction of the air passages such that the person has difficulty breathing is

A. allergies
B. bronchitis
C. asthma
D. inhalation
C. asthma
Which of the following statements about AIDs is true?

A. it only makes one susceptible to fatal infections
B. children with AIDs seldom acquire neurological problems as a result of the condition
C. children in minority populations are at less of a risk for contracting HIV infections that cause AIDs
D. with reasonable procedures, there is no serious chance for transmission of AIDs in the classroom
D. with reasonable procedures, there is no serious chance for transmission of AIDs in the classroom
Which statement about phenylketonuria (PKU) is true?

A. it only causes intellectual disabilities
B. it is the only know genetically determined metabolic disorder
C. it requires a life-long special diet for treatment
D. it goes away in late childhood
C. it requires a life-long special diet for treatment
Jim has an artificial leg. This is an example of

A. orthosis
B. prosthesis
C. adaptive device
D. assistive device
B. prosthesis
For children with most physical disabilities and other health impairments, a common cause of academic difficulties is

A. discrimination and prejudice.
B. erratic school attendance
C. poor study skills
D. inadequate motivation
B. erratic school attendance
In general, academic achievement of children with physical disabilities is below that of their nondisabled peers

True
False
False
Prereferral teams serve all of the following purposes EXCEPT

A. developing IEPs for all students who need them.
B. reducing the number of referrals to special education.
C. establishing ―ownership‖ of students with disabilities by general educators.
D. recommending strategies for working with children who exhibit academic and behavioral problems.
A. developing IEPs for all students who need them.
Response to intervention (RTI)

A. has implications only for those with learning disabilities.
B. is restricted to academic learning.
C. can be applied to social behavior and academic learning.
D. is the same as a prereferral team except that it is limited to students with learning disabilities.
C. can be applied to social behavior and academic learning.
Frequent measures that provide information on whether a student is learning as expected are

A. outcome measures.
B. standardized assessments.
C. progress monitoring assessments.
D. measures of student achievement.
C. progress monitoring assessments.
Each of the following components must be included on an individualized education program (IEP) EXCEPT

A. annual goals.
B. related services to be provided.
C. student's IQ score.
D. instructional objectives.
C. student's IQ score.
Each of the following people is typically on an IEP team EXCEPT

A. a parent or guardian.
B. a provider of special education.
C. the child's general education teacher.
D. a special education lawyer.
D. a special education lawyer.
The special education intervention that requires the least specialized environment is

A. consultation by a special educator.
B. instruction by an itinerant teacher.
C. instruction in a resource room.
D. instruction by a regular classroom teacher.
D. instruction by a regular classroom teacher
Leslie is enrolled in a regular classroom, but works with a special education teacher in a special education classroom for an hour a day. What type of special education services does Leslie receive?

A. She receives itinerant services.
B. She receives resource services.
C. She receives consultation services.
D. She receives diagnostic-prescriptive services.
B. She receives resource services.
Homebound instruction is most often utilized for students who have

A. a visual impairment.
B. physical disabilities.
C. mental retardation.
D. a hearing impairment.
B. physical disabilities.
Estella has a learning disability. Her primary placement is most likely a

A. self-contained special education class.
B. regular classroom.
C. resource room.
D. special day school.
B. regular classroom.
Nationwide, what percentage of students with disabilities is educated primarily in regular classrooms?

A. less than 5
B. nearly 15
C. about 35
D. more than 50
D. more than 50
Bill is a student with low vision. His teacher provides him with a set of large-type notes at the beginning of each lecture. This is an example of


A. accommodation.
B. adaptation.
C. tiered assignment.
D. partial participation.
A. accommodation.
When teachers provide choices of activities on a single topic that vary in difficulty, they are using

A. watered-down curriculum.
B. accommodations.
C. partial participation.
D. tiered assignments.
D. tiered assignments
A student who performs or behaves poorly in school and appears likely to fail or fall short of his or her potential is


A. at risk.
B. disabled.
C. handicapped
D. challenged
A. at risk.
All teachers should expect to participate in educating students with disabilities. Which one of the following responsibilities is a regular classroom teacher LEAST likely to have?

A. evaluating academic abilities
B. managing serious behavior problems
C. participating in writing individualized educational programs
D. collaborating with other professionals
B. managing serious behavior problems
Which of the following is an expectation for general education teachers?

A. knowledge of special education law
B. instruction of students with serious learning problems
C. management of serious behavior problems
D. participating in writing individualized education programs
D. participating in writing individualized education programs
Ms. Smith, a second grade teacher, has concerns about Bruce's progress in math. Before she makes a referral for special education, she should

A. discuss her concerns with Bruce.
B. administer an intelligence test.
C. discuss her concerns with Bruce's parents.
D. consult with specialists at a diagnostic-prescriptive center.
C. discuss her concerns with Bruce's parents.
Before making a referral for special education, a general education classroom teacher should do all of the following EXCEPT


A. modify or adapt the student's instructional program.
B. communicate concerns to parents.
C. examine student's school record.
D. administer diagnostic tests.
D. administer diagnostic tests.
What makes special education "special" is

A. instruction that it alone uses.
B. the more qualified teachers involved in it.
C. instruction that is altered to meet the needs of exceptional learners.
D. the quantity of services provided.
C. instruction that is altered to meet the needs of exceptional learners.
Research evidence suggests that response to intervention is more effective than prereferral teams at reducing the number of students referred for special education.

True
False
False
The individualized education program (IEP) is not required to be a written statement; however, the parents must agree to the teacher's plans before the student is enrolled.

True
False
False
Which one of the following best describes the purpose of multicultural education?


A. It provides equal educational opportunities to all students

B. It provides bilingual education for non-English speakers.

C. It involves parents in their child's education.

D. It teaches children of ethnic minorities about their ancestors.
A. It provides equal educational opportunities to all students
Critics of multicultural education claim that it


A. erodes the moral foundation of society.
B. presses children into a humanistic, secular mold
C. undermines the central purpose of school, which is to ensure academic competence
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
Which two issues particularly complicate teaching about cultures and engendering an acceptance of cultural diversity?

A. deciding which cultures best illustrate the concepts of universality of cultural pride and shame
B. the money and time we have for curriculum changes
C. deciding which cultures should be included and how to teach about them
D. deciding which cultures should be represented and the predominate religious beliefs within a school system
C. deciding which cultures should be included and how to teach about them
Assuming that one's cultural identity is sufficient to explain academic achievement or economic success is a form of


A. stereotyping.
B. cultural relativism
C. racism.
D. ethnicity.
A. stereotyping.
The two primary objectives of multicultural special education are


A. promoting understanding of exceptionality as a microculture and ensuring that exceptionality is included in the multicultural curriculum.
B. ensuring that ethnicity is not mistaken for exceptionality and increasing understanding of disability as a microculture.
C. enabling students from culturally diverse backgrounds to succeed in the mainstream and lobbying for services in multicultural educational programs
D. increasing visibility of people with disabilities in the macroculture and promoting acceptance of people with disabilities by the majority culture
B. ensuring that ethnicity is not mistaken for exceptionality and increasing understanding of disability as a microculture.
An example of a disability with a highly organized subculture is


A. deafness.
B. blindness.
C. mental retardation.
D. autism.
A. deafness.
Which one of the following best describes assessment of the instructional environment?

A. examination to determine the adequacy of classroom space and layout
B. testing using actual instructional materials
C. investigation of what is being taught and how it is being taught
D. assessment of academic achievement
C. investigation of what is being taught and how it is being taught
When identifying students in need of special education, professionals must make sure the student is not mistakenly identified as the source of the learning problem. A recommended strategy for this purpose is to

A. include assessment of the instructional environment.
B. increase reliance on objectively scored, standardized tests.
C. eliminate use of standardized tests.
D. avoid use of curriculum-based assessment
A. include assessment of the instructional environment.
There is a dilemma in choosing either to ignore or recognize differences because

A. all cultural differences have both advantages and disadvantages, making it difficult to predict how those differences will affect the individual
B. either choice can perpetuate inequality for members of a subculture
C. in order to fit in at school, students must forfeit the values and beliefs that they learned at home
D. in striving to assert their identity, members of subcultures serve only to perpetuate stereotypes and inequality
B. either choice can perpetuate inequality for members of a subculture
Afrocentric instruction is best described as instruction that

A. develops convergent rather than divergent thinking
B. involves African-American students and their families in the study of their roots.
C. highlights African culture and modes of teaching and learning.
D. promotes interaction and cooperation among African-American students
C. highlights African culture and modes of teaching and learning.
The rationale underlying African-American immersion schools is that

A. with increased achievement, African-American students will achieve true integration
B. most African-American students need more structure and discipline.
C. most teachers are biased against African-American students
D. parents will become more involved in their children's education
A. with increased achievement, African-American students will achieve true integration
Tolerance is best described as


A. an appreciation and valuing of difference
B. acknowledging our legacy of racism and prejudice
C. enduring others even if they are seen as undesirable.
D. putting up with a necessary evil.
A. an appreciation and valuing of difference
A technique in which the teacher assists the student in learning a task and then phases out help as the student learns to use the strategy independently is called

A. hand-over-hand instruction
B. scaffolded instruction
C. mnemonic instruction.
D. supported instruction
B. scaffolded instruction
Tactics that aid memory, such as rhymes or images, are called

A. visual organizers
B. reminders
C. scaffolds
D. mnemonics
D. mnemonics
A viable multicultural curriculum cannot be created and handed out to teachers because


A. they must be involved in the process because their values, perspectives, and teaching styles affect what is taught and how it is taught.
B. the government has passed legislation banning the teaching of multicultural issues within an integrated curriculum
C. there is not enough money to create such a curriculum nationwide.
D. most want to exercise their right to select their own curriculum based on their own beliefs and are resistant to being told what to teach.
A. they must be involved in the process because their values, perspectives, and teaching styles affect what is taught and how it is taught.
A recommended technique of breaking down prejudice and encouraging positive interactions among students with different characteristics is

A. direct instruction
B. immersion
C. Afrocentrism
D. cooperative learning
D. cooperative learning
The primary purpose of multicultural education is to teach children of ethnic minorities about their history and the intellectual, social, and artistic contributions of their ancestors

True
False
False
An individual can be a member of many subcultures.

True
False
True
Most professionals agree that multicultural education should consider only subcultures identified by ethnicity, not those identified by gender, sexual preference or disability

True
False
False
Some ethnic minorities are under-represented in special education

True
False
True
When dealing with the public, one of the most difficult things that parents are likely to face is

A. the inappropriate responses of their children to others.
B. the poor report cards they may get from school.
C. the problems that other children in the family will experience because they have a sibling
D. inappropriate responses of others to their children with disabilities
D. inappropriate responses of others to their children with disabilities
Most family intervention programs today are based on professional-centered models.

True
False
False
In the not too distant past, many professionals believed that parents were

A. unwilling to spend time working with their child.
B. to blame for their child's problems.
C. unable to cope with a child with a disability
D. unable to work effectively with their child.
B. to blame for their child's problems.
Unlike the past, many professionals now view early intervention as an opportunity to

A. teach parents how to teach their child
B. train parents to be effective therapists
C. provide counseling for parents.
D. support the natural parent-child relationship.
D. support the natural parent-child relationship.
The prevalence of feelings of guilt is probably due to

A. stranger's stares and comments
B. the fact that the cause of so many disabilities is unknown
C. parents' knowledge that they caused their child's disability
D. the lack of support for families of disabled children
B. the fact that the cause of so many disabilities is unknown
In dealing with the feelings of a child with a disability, parents should

A. assure the child that he or she is no different from others and their disability doesn't matter.
B. respond honestly to specific questions asked by the child.
C. wait until the child is an adolescent so he or she will be better able to understand.
D. speak about their disability in general, rather than specific ways.
B. respond honestly to specific questions asked by the child.
Parents are often the first to notice that something is wrong with their child

True
False
True
The degree to which families are able to change their modes of interaction when they encounter unusual or stressful situations refers to

A. acceptance
B. cohesion
C. adaptability
D. compassion
C. adaptability
It may be particularly difficult for a child to develop positive attitudes toward a sibling with a disability if

A. they live in a single-parent household.
B. there is an age gap of five or more years
C. they are of different sexes.
D. they are close in age
D. they are close in age.
Families of a child with a disability tend to experience most stress during

A. infancy to age five.
B. adolescence
C. transitions
D. adulthood
C. transitions
The family systems approach emphasizes

A. the effects of the environment on the family
B. interrelationships among the family and other social systems
C. need for ongoing and systematic family intervention.
D. quality of interactions between parents and professionals
B. interrelationships among the family and other social systems
The degree to which an individual family member is free to act independently of other family members is

A. adaptability.
B. acceptance
C. compassion
D. cohesion.
D. cohesion.
Young siblings of a child with a disability are likely to

A. have the opposite reaction as their parents
B. deny that the child with a disability is different.
C. seek out information from others about the disability.
D. have a more difficult time coping with their feelings than their parents.
D. have a more difficult time coping with their feelings than their parents
One person having the authority, granted by the courts, to make decisions for another person is

A. paternalism
B. guardianship.
C. wardenship
D. proxy.
B. guardianship.
It is suggested that social support be integrated with positive behavioral support specifically in the case of children with


A. physical disabilities
B. learning disabilities
C. emotional of behavioral disorders.
D. Down syndrome
C. emotional of behavioral disorders.
In families of a child with a disability, parental stress is usually the result of

A. daily burdens related to child care
B. the childʹs medical involvement.
C. demands placed on the family by the school system
D. catastrophic events
A. daily burdens related to child care
Which approach considers how the impact of a child with a disability on the family changes over time?

A. family-centered perspective
B. life cycle perspective
C. community systems perspective
D. social support systems model
B. life cycle perspective
Which one of the following is regarded by some parents as a positive effect of having a child with a disability?

A. entitles the family to financial benefits
B. causes family members to be more tolerant of others
C. reduces parentsʹ concerns about social issues
D. puts an end to unstable marital relationships
B. causes family members to be more tolerant of others
Families with a high level of cohesion may limit their child's independence

True
False
True
Carol and Ed Johnson have three children: Tony, age 15; Mark, age 12; and Sarah, age 10. Tony, who is about to enter high school, has Down syndrome. He currently attends a regular middle school where he is in a self-contained special education program for most of the day. Tony's speech is difficult to understand so he uses a combination of speech and manual signs to communicate. He has a variety of physical problems, including a congenital heart defect and visual impairment. Academically, his skills are at the kindergarten to first grade level. Tony and Mark attend the same middle school and Mark sometimes rides the special education bus with Tony. Both Carol and Ed work full-time. Although she could earn more money working in a hospital or in a physicians office, Carol works as a school nurse so she can be home after school with Tony; the community does not have after-school programs for middle school students.


For Ed and Carol, parental stress is most likely the result of

A. Tony's medical needs

B. daily burdens related to Tony's care

C. Mark and Sarah's resentment of Tony


D. demands placed by the school with respect to Tony's program
B. daily burdens related to Tony's care
Determining the consequences, antecedents, and setting events that maintain inappropriate behavior is called

A. functional analysis
B. applied behavior analysis
C. transfer of stimulus control
D. functional behavioral assessment.
D. functional behavioral assessment.
Which one of the following components is part of the most recent American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) definition of intellectual disabilities?


A. significant limitations in intellectual functioning
B. discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement
C. deficits in vocational skills
D. manifest before age 10
A. significant limitations in intellectual functioning
Fetal alcohol syndrome is classified as resulting from a/an

A. environmental hazard
B. infection
C. genetic factor
D. chromosomal abnormality
A. environmental hazard
In recent years, the percentage of cases in which the cause of intellectual disabilities is known has dramatically increased due to

A. better assessment practices by teachers.
B. the mapping of the human genetic code
C. better assessment practices by medical doctors.
D. advances in microscopic technology
B. the mapping of the human genetic code
Many authorities say that adaptive behavior consists of


A. social intelligence and practical intelligence
B. social skills and practical skills.
C. IQ and behavior
D. academic intelligence and practical intelligence.
A. social intelligence and practical intelligence
Causes of intellectual disabilities that occur before the birth of the child are categorized as

A. perinatal.
B. postnatal.
C. prenatal.
D. premature
C. prenatal
The likelihood of having a child with Down syndrome increases significantly with


A. the age of the mother
B. alcohol consumption during pregnancy
C. a family history of intellectual disabilities.
D. certain blood types.
A. the age of the mother
All states routinely screen for this before babies leave the hospital:

A. Fragile X syndrome
B. phenylketonuria
C. Down syndrome.
D. hydrocephalus.
B. phenylketonuria
The classification system that most school systems use to describe levels of intellectual disabilities is based on

A. an estimate of educability.
B. IQ score
C. the intensity of support needed
D. adaptive level
B. IQ score
A surgically placed shunt that drains excess fluid away from the brain is used to treat

A. microcephalus
B. encephalitis
C. meningitis
D. hydrocephalus
D. hydrocephalus
A personʹs awareness of what strategies are needed to perform a task, the ability to plan how to use the strategies, and the evaluation of how well the strategies are working is

A. self-regulation.
B. metacognition
C. working memory.
D. perception
A. self-regulation.
Intellectual disabilities that occur at the time of birth are

A. prenatal ID.
B. perinatal ID
C. postnatal ID
D. antenatal ID
B. perinatal ID
In functional academics, academics are taught in the context of

A. community living
B. vocational settings.
C. daily living skills
D. simplified curricula.
C. daily living skills
An infection of the covering of the brain that may be caused by a variety of bacterial and viral agents is

A. syphilis
B. encephalitis
C. meningitis.
D. traumatic brain injury (TBI
C. meningitis.
Most authorities now hold that the critical determinants of intelligence are both


A. nature and genetics.
B. nurture and experience.
C. nature and experience
D. genetics and intelligence.
C. nature and experience
The ability to keep information in mind while simultaneously doing another task is


A. working memory
B. short-term memory.
C. long-term memory.
D. active memory.
A. working memory
Joe tends to believe whatever he is told, even highly questionable statements or claims, despite any evidence. This tendency is

A. self-deception
B. gullibility.
C. unreasonable trust.
D. learned helplessness
B. gullibility.
The most common known hereditary cause of intellectual disabilities is


A. Fragile X syndrome
B. Down syndrome
C. Williams syndrome
D. Prader-Willi syndrome
A. Fragile X syndrome
A specific and characteristic behavior repertoire associated with a genetic or chromosomal disorder is a

A. genetic syndrome
B. personality characteristic
C. behavioral phenotype
D. behavioral genotype
C. behavioral phenotype
Testing that usually involves giving students a small sample of items from the curriculum in use is

A. curriculum-designed measurement.
B. real-sample measurement.
C. curriculum-based measurement
D. select-item measurement.
A. curriculum-designed measurement
One of the major advantages of the response to intervention method of identifying learning disabilities is that

A. it is easy to implement.
B. it is not subject to the same ʺwait-to failʺ criticism
C. it ensures that a studentʹs low achievement is not simply due to ineffective instruction
D. A great deal of research has been done to show how best to implement RTI.
C. it ensures that a studentʹs low achievement is not simply due to ineffective instruction
Dyslexia refers to a severe impairment in the ability to


A. read.
B. use expressive language
C. compute
D. write.
A. read.
The most commonly used definition of learning disabilities is that endorsed by

A. AAIDD
B. NJCLD
C. LDA
D. the federal government
D. the federal government
Over the years, evidence has accumulated showing that learning disabilities

A. manifest themselves prior to age three
B. dramatically improve in the adult years
C. can be inherited.
D. occur more often in first-born children
C. can be inherited.
Agents that can cause malformations or defects in a developing fetus are called

A. toxinogens.
B. mutations.
C. teratogens.
D. poisons.
C. teratogens
Definitions used to make eligibility and classification decisions related to learning disabilities traditionally include which one of the following factors?


A. IQ-achievement discrepancy
B. learning problems due to visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
C. neurological evidence of brain injury
D. deficits in adaptive behavior
A. IQ-achievement discrepancy
Boys outnumber girls by about two to one in the learning disability category.

True
False
False
Which of the following statements about teachers of students with learning disabilities is true?

A. They have knowledge and skills about learning that apply only at remedial levels.
B. Their knowledge and skills typically apply to one content area at the secondary level.
C. Their knowledge and skills about learning are typically not relevant to secondary-level classes.
D. They have knowledge and skills about learning that can be used across content areas.
D. They have knowledge and skills about learning that can be used across content areas.
A tendency to reverse letters when writing may be due to problems in

A. auditory perception.
B. general coordination
C. visual perception
D. perceptual-motor skills
C. visual perception
By definition, every student with learning disabilities has

A. academic problems.
B. brain damage
C. hyperactivity
D. deficits in all academic areas
A. academic problems.
In the response to intervention (RTI) model with tiers of intervention, curriculum-based measurement is part of

A. primary prevention
B. secondary prevention
C. tertiary prevention
D. quaternary prevention
A. primary prevention
Which one of the following problems best illustrates difficulty in metacognition?


A. Oscar neglects to slow down when reading a difficult passage
B. Rita can't tell the difference between the spoken words "think" and "thing."
C. Joelle reverses b and d
D. Simon is always active and out of his seat.
A. Oscar neglects to slow down when reading a difficult passage
A method in which assistance is provided to students when they are first learning tasks, then gradually reduced until the students do the tasks independently is


A. scaffolded instruction
B. self-monitoring.
C. prompted instruction
D. self-regulated strategy development
A. scaffolded instruction
Brianna is a junior in high school who has a learning disability and an external locus of control. When she succeeds on a homework assignment in math, she is most likely to attribute her success to

A. intelligence
B. math ability
C. help from others
D. effort
C. help from others
Making students aware of the stages of problem-solving tasks while they are performing them and bringing behavior under verbal control is

A. reciprocal teaching
B. self-instruction
C. self-monitoring
D. scaffolded instruction
B. self-instruction
The ability to understand the rules of how sounds combine to make up words is

A. phonological awareness
B. phonemic awareness
C. decoding.
D. reading fluency
B. phonemic awareness
A method involving breaking down academic problems into their component parts that can be taught separately and then combined is called


A. task analysis.
B. cognitive training
C. scaffolded instruction
D. direct instruction.
A. task analysis.
The resource room is the most popular placement for students with learning disabilities

True
False
False
Which poses the most difficulty for most children with learning disabilities?


A. reading
B. spelling
C. handwriting
D. math
A. reading
IQ and achievement are the best predictors of adult success for people with learning disabilities

True
False
False
Mike has exhibited the following symptoms for more than a year at home and in school: difficulty organizing tasks, avoids tasks that require sustained mental effort, easily distracted by external stimuli, forgetful of daily activities, often makes careless mistakes, and does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. The type of ADHD Mike has is probably

A. predominantly hyperactive-inattentive type
B. predominantly inattentive type.
C. predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type.
D. combined type.
B. predominantly inattentive type.
The tendency to repeat the same behaviors over and over again is called

A. redundancy.
B. perseverance
C. repetition.
D. perseveration
D. perseveration
Which of the following is a method to assess a personʹs performance on a task requiring sustained attention?

A. Conners scale
B. continuous performance test
C. clinical interview
D. behavioral observation room
B. continuous performance test
Which characteristic do some authorities currently suggest should replace inattention as the primary deficit in ADHD?


A. behavioral inhibition
B. hyperactivity
C. subtle brain damage
D. aggressiveness
A. behavioral inhibition
Part of the brain responsible for executive functions such as the ability to regulate oneʹs own behavior is the

A. basal ganglia
B. cerebellum
C. corpus collosum
D. frontal lobes
D. frontal lobes
Students with ADHD receive special education services under IDEA in which category?


A. other health impaired
B. ADHD
C. emotional or behavioral disorders
D. learning disabilities
A. other health impaired
Which statement about the brains of people with ADHD is true?

A. There is evidence of tissue damage in areas of the brain in people with ADHD
B. Some areas are larger in people with ADHD compared to those without disabilities.
C. There is no apparent effect on the size or condition of brain areas in people with ADHD.
D. Some areas are smaller in people with ADHD compared to those without disabilities
D. Some areas are smaller in people with ADHD compared to those without disabilities
In contingency-based self-management, the ʺcontingencyʺ is usually a type of

A. punishment
B. reward
C. aversive
D. contract
B. reward
The ability to withhold a planned response; to interrupt a response that has been started; to protect an ongoing activity from interfering activities; and to delay a response refers to

A. self control.
B. behavioral control.
C. behavioral inhibition
D. executive functions.
C. behavioral inhibition
Abilities needed to be successful in one's living environment (e.g., communication, self-care, social skills, and leisure) are called

A. life skills.
B. practical skills.
C. adaptive skills.
D. functional skills
C. adaptive skills.
Most students with ADHD spend most of their time in which of the following settings?

A. special day school
B. resource room
C. self-contained classroom
D. general education classroom
D. general education classroom
A behavioral recording system that allows a teacher to conduct brief observations and collect data on a specific set of behaviors is


A. momentary time sampling.
B. contingency-based recording.
C. intermittent time sampling.
D. continuous time sampling.
A. momentary time sampling.
A teaching model that includes content instruction by one teacher to a large group of students and remedial or supplementary instruction by the other teacher to a small group of students is


A. alternative teaching.
B. parallel teaching
C. team teaching
D. station teaching.
A. alternative teaching.
The behavior of one student is tied to the outcome of the whole group in a

A. group consequence model.
B. group contingency model
C. contingency-based self-monitoring model.
D. consequence-based self-management mode
B. group contingency model
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, the most effective treatment for ADHD is

A. medication management
B. combined medication management and behavioral treatment
C. behavioral treatment
D. community care.
B. combined medication management and behavioral treatment
Diagnosis of young children with ADHD is particularly difficult because

A. there is no funding to do assessment in preschool
B. symptoms usually do not appear before a child is eight years of age.
C. preschool teachers have no training in identifying children with disabilities.
D. many preschoolers without ADHD exhibit a great deal of activity and impulsivity.
D. many preschoolers without ADHD exhibit a great deal of activity and impulsivity.
The best "test" for ADHD in adults is

A. referrals from past teachers
B. an MRI to test for brain abnormalities
C. the Conner's behavior scale.
D. the person's life and medical history.
D. the person's life and medical history.
The most frequently prescribed types of medication for students with ADHD are

A. depressants
B. mood enhancers
C. psychotropics
D. psychostimulants
D. psychostimulants
Behavioral changes in students with ADHD are much more likely to occur in special education than in general education classrooms.

True
False
True
Studies have shown that positive behavioral changes in students with ADHD are much more likely to occur in


A. general education settings.
B. special education settings
C. home settings.
D. residential program settings.
A. general education settings
The most obvious problem of children with E/BD is

A. imaginary friendships
B. aggression aimed at others
C. lack of close emotional ties
D. social fear or disinterest
C. lack of close emotional ties
The term used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that has been criticized as inappropriate is


A. emotionally disturbed

B. severe behavioral disorder

C. emotional or behavioral disturbance

D. serious emotional disturbance
A. emotionally disturbed
In the majority of cases, the cause of E/BD is

A. biological
B. family-related
C. unknown
D. school-based
C. unknown
Which one of the following features is common to most definitions of E/BD?

A. behavior that is sometimes normal and sometimes deviant
B. psychological processing problem
C. sudden onset of an extreme behavior problem
D. socially unacceptable behavior
D. socially unacceptable behavior
Some states and localities interpret maladjustment as


A. conduct disorder
B. autism
C. schizophrenia
D. low academic performance
A. conduct disorder
Two broad dimensions of behavior disorders are


A. externalizing and internalizing

B. withdrawal and disinterest

C. exterior and interior

D. hostility and aggression
A. externalizing and internalizing
Comorbidity in persons with E/BD is


A. not unusual
B. very unusual
C. rare
D. part of the diagnosis
A. not unusual
Professionals believe that children with E/BD are presently underserved. By this, they mean that

A. special education interventions are not intense enough to meet the needs of most children with E/BD
B. only a small percentage of students with E/Bd are presently identified as such by schools
C. in many cases, schools refuse to provide services for students identified with E/BD, despite the legal mandate
D. few professionals are trained to work effectively with students in this category
B. only a small percentage of students with E/Bd are presently identified as such by schools
On standardized achievement tests, most students with E/BD perform

A. at grade level
B. above grade level
C. at mental age level
D. below grade level
D. below grade level
Many social learning theorists and behavioral psychologists believe that aggression is

A. caused by an overwhelming sense of frustration
B. a result of subconscious motives
C. a defense mechanism used in distressing situations
D. a learned behavior
D. a learned behavior
To maximize their effectiveness, programs for students with E/BD should provide a balance between


A. behavioral control and academic/social instruction.

B. academic/social instruction and vocational training

C. psychological therapy and academic/social instruction.

D. individualized instruction and behavioral control
A. behavioral control and academic/social instruction.
Behavioral psychologists tend to attribute withdrawal and immaturity to
A. internal conflicts

B. unconscious motivations

C. conscious motivations

D. failures in social learning
D. failures in social learning
All credible conceptual models of education have two objectives. They are


A. controlling misbehavior and teaching academic and social skills

B. controlling misbehavior and teaching academic skills

C. teaching academic and social skills

D. controlling misbehavior and teaching social skills
A. controlling misbehavior and teaching academic and social skills
The most common problems exhibited by children with E/BD are

A. withdrawn behaviors.

B. attention deficit disorders

C. impulsive behaviors
D. conduct disorders.
D. conduct disorders.
The placement of individuals with E/BD in the general education classroom is secondary to

A. the least restrictive environment (LRE).
B. their civil rights.
C. the need for appropriate education and safety
D. parental demands
C. the need for appropriate education and safety
The trend today in placement of children with E/BD is away from special facilities and toward

A. educational, hospital settings
B. homebound, individualized care
C. inclusion in regular public schools
D. specialized treatment in private settings
C. inclusion in regular public schools
Two methods frequently employed to monitor behavioral progress are

A. curriculum-based measurement and standardized assessment
B. rating scales and standardized assessment
C. rating scales and direct observation.
D. curriculum-based measurement and direct observation.
C. rating scales and direct observation.
The federal definition of E/BD has been most widely criticized for its exclusion of children with

A. autism

B. schizophrenia

C. social maladjustment

D. attention deficit disorder
C. social maladjustment
Despite problems in defining E/BD, most children with severe E/BD are easily recognized because

A. teachers are trained in the use of behavior rating scales

B. systematic screening procedures are used in most schools.


C. their behavior attracts immediate attention

D. most schools have psychologists on-site.
C. their behavior attracts immediate attention
The authors of the textbook stress the importance of integrated services for students with E/BD. By this, they mean that

A. subject areas within the curriculum should not be taught in isolation from each other

B. students with E/BD should be fully included in regular classrooms.


C. schools, families, and community agencies should cooperate to meet studentsʹ needs.

D. therapy should occur in school within the context of the studentʹs academic program
C. schools, families, and community agencies should cooperate to meet studentsʹ needs
The words "autistic" and "autism" come from the Greek word autos, meaning

A. cars

B. withdrawn

C. others
D. self
D. self
One characteristic that distinguished children studied by Kanner was


A. an inability to relate to others in an ordinary manner

B. a need to be picked up or held by parents

C. surprisingly normal language development

D. an extreme dislike of repetition
A. an inability to relate to others in an ordinary manner
Asperger identified children who had



A. average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas

B. above average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas

C. below average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas

D. below average intelligence and a tendency toward violent, psychotic behavior
A. average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas
Someone who exhibits echolalia would

A. reverse pronouns


B. parrot what he or she hears

C. sound robotic when speaking

D. speak too loudly
B. parrot what he or she hears
Most scientists argue that the dramatic increase in prevalence statistics for autism is due to each of the following EXCEPT

A. a widening of the criteria used for diagnosis

B. a greater awareness of autism in general


C. widespread use of vaccinations for babies

D. "diagnostic substitution" (diagnosing with austism rather than intellectual disability)
C. widespread use of vaccinations for babies
The disorder that is much more prevalent in females than males is

A. Asperger syndrome

B. Rett syndrome

C. childhood disintegrative disorder

D. pervasive developmental disorder
B. Rett syndrome
Which term was once commonly applied to mothers of children with autism?

A. warmhearted moms

B. refrigerator moms

C. coldhearted moms

D. neglectful moms
B. refrigerator moms
Neurological research that involves the brain and head size of people with autism suggest that for many

A. their brains are larger than average at birth

B. their brains increase in size after about five years

C. their brains grow suddenly and excessively in the first two years of life

D. their brains reach maximum size around age two or three years
C. their brains grow suddenly and excessively in the first two years of life
Autism is relatively easy to diagnose because

A. there is a metabolic test that can be performed
B. brain scans clearly indicate the areas of the brain affected
C. intelligence tests can be used to pinpoint specific conditions
D. the behavioral symptoms are so severe and striking
D. the behavioral symptoms are so severe and striking
A condition characterized by normal development for at least 2 and up to 10 years, followed by a significant loss of skills is

A. Asperger syndrome
B. Rett syndrome
C. childhood disintegrative disorder
D. pervasive developmental disorder
C. childhood disintegrative disorder
Children with autism have impaired communication; as many as 50 percent are thought to


A. be mute

B. lack communicative intent

C. display stereotypic behavior

D. exhibit echolalia
A. be mute
Jeremy has severe autism. He does not interact with others socially and his intellectual functioning appears to be very low. However, Jeremy has extraordinary ability as a pianist (though he is not interested in performing for other people). Which term best describes Jeremy?

A. Asperger syndrome

B. Rett syndrome


C. autistic savant

D. autistic genuis
C. autistic savant
A person whose sensory perceptions are so abnormal that he or she could appear to be deaf or blind would be


A. hyporesponsive

B. hyperresponsive

C. overresponsive

D. hypersensitive
A. hyporesponsive
The natural inclination for most people to bring order and meaning to information in their environment by perceiving it as meaningful whole rather than as disparate parts is

A. lateral coherence


B. central coherence

C. lateral adherence

D. central synthesis
B. central coherence
Jean is a young woman with Asperger syndrome. Her coworker recently lost a family member to cancer. Jean expounded on her knowledge of the cause and effects of the illness, but did not offer condolences, nor did she notice the discomfort she was causing her coworker. Jean's inability to perceive the feelings or to understand the emotional state of her coworker is related to

A. theory of central coherence

B. theory of empathy

C. theory of mind

D. theory of executive functioning
C. theory of mind
Functional behavioral assessment is used to reduce or eliminate negative behaviors. The purposes the behaviors serve for a person are

A. antecedents

B. setting events


C. consequences

D. motivations
C. consequences
Two strategies for teaching social skills to students with Asperger syndrome that have been relatively successful are


A. social interpreting and coaching

B. peer tutoring and counseling

C. collaborative grouping and peer response

D. social skills films and lectures
A. social interpreting and coaching
What is currently the most popular placement for students with autism


A. self-contained classroom

B. separate schools

C. resource rooms

D. general education classrooms
A. self-contained classroom
Two critical areas of assessment for students with autism spectrum disorders are

A. progress in academic skills and functional skills

B. progress in academic skills and social/adaptive behavior

C. progress in language development and functional skills


D. progress in language development and social/adaptive behavior
D. progress in language development and social/adaptive behavior
Planning for transition to adulthood for people with Asperger syndrome is largely concerned with issues of

A. supported living

B. competitive employment

C. residential placement


D. social interaction
D. social interaction