NBME Reviews

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Strep Pyogenes (GAS)
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Terms in this set (460)
Strep Pyogenes (GAS)
Gram(+) cocci in chains, catalase (-), B-hemolytic (full RBC lysis), Bacitracin-sensitive (only GAS species that is)
Staph Aureus
Gram(+) cocci in clusters, catalase (+), coagulase (+)
Positive Quellung reaction
Capsular swelling due to antigens, indicates encapsulated (S. pneumo, Klebsiella, H. Flu
Reactive Arthritis Pt
GI/GU infection leads to immune complex deposition: monoarthritis, conjunctivitis, back pain. HLA-B27
Ankylosing Spondylitis Pt
axial skeleton stiffness, uveitis, enthesitis, HLA-B27
What is a Callus (Tyloma)
thickening and hardening of most superficial skin layer (stratum corneum)
Increased LH causes ovarian theca cells to make androgens --> acne, hirsutism, anovulation
muscarinic agonist that activates smooth muscle of pupillary sphincter to cause pupil constriction (miosis)
muscarinic antagonist: treats bradycardia and causes pupil dilation (mydriasis) by paralyzing ciliary muscle
Pernicious Anemia mechanism
autoimmune destruction of gastric mucosa: low gastric acid --> high gastrin and low IF --> low B12
Acanthosis Nigricans (chronic vs acute)
chronic (obesity, insulin resistance, DM) vs acute (GI or lung malignancy)
Treatment for RA and Crohn's and MOA
Increased risk of:
Infliximab, Adalimumab, Etanercept: TNF-A blockers that decrease expression of NF-KB

Increase risk of latent TB as TNF-A is a macrophage cytokine for granuloma formation
Natalizumab MOA
blocks leukocyte integrin to inhibit migration
Tacrolimus MOA and SE
Inhibits calcineurin to lower IL-2 transcription --> decreases T-cell activation
SE: nephrotoxic obliterative vasculopathy
Histology of HIV Nephropathy
Collapsing FSGS: glomerular tuft collapse, glomerular epithelial hypertrophy, cystic tubular dilation