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GEOG 1301 Ch. 5
Terms in this set (50)
High pressure center; in upper atmosphere of northern hemisphere winds move clockwise in a Geostrophic manner parallel to the isobars; in in upper Southern Hemisphere winds move counterclockwise; in lower/friction layer in northern hemisphere there is a divergent clockwise flow with air spiraling out away from the center of the anticyclone; in friction layer of Southern Hemisphere there is a divergent counterclockwise pattern
the force exerted by the atmosphere on a surface; atmosphere is made up of gases that have mass, atmosphere has weight bc this mass is pulled toward earth by gravity
bc earth rotates any object moving freely near earths surface appears to deflect to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere; influence direction of wind flow
Low pressure centers; upper northern hemisphere air moves counterclockwise in a Geostrophic pattern parallel to the isobars; upper southern air moves clockwise I a Geostrophic pattern parallel to isobars; in friction layer of northern a converging counterclockwise flow exists; in friction layer of southern winds converge in clockwise spiral
zone where air from the norther hemisphere and southern hemisphere meet, also ITCZ, attributed to the fact that sailing ships were often becalmed in these latitudes
Periodic atmospheric and oceanic phenomenon of the tropical pacific that typically involves the weakening or reversal of trade winds and the warming of surface water off the west coast of South America
A sharp zone of discontinuity between unlike air masses
Always in motion
General circulation model
Made up of seven components: ITCZ, trade winds, subtropical winds, westerlies, polar front (sub polar lows), polar easterlies, polar highs
Closed system within the troposphere, no beginning or end
A wind that moves parallel to the isobars as a result of the balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis effect
2 prominent tropical convection cells, low latitude cells one north and one south of the equator, gigantic convention systems, where warm air rises in the ITCZ and 25-30 degrees of latitude, where much of the air subsides into the subtropical highs
Area of relatively high atmospheric pressure
regions of subtropical highs characterized by an absence of wind: in the center of an STH air is primarily subsiding horizontal air movement and divergence begin toward the edges; 16th-17th centuries sailing ships were sometimes becalmed there and their cargos of horses were thrown overboard to conserve drinking water
Intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ)
zone where air from the norther hemisphere and southern hemisphere meet, also doldrums; a zone of convergence and weak horizontal airflow characterized by feeble and erratic winds
2 cores of high speed winds (polar front jet stream & subtropical jet stream), at high altitudes in the westerlies
Common local wind system along tropical coastlines and to a lesser extent during summer in midlatitudes coastal areas; at night, breeze flows land to sea
Area of relatively low atmospheric pressure
Most significant deviation from the pattern of general circulation; southern and eastern Eurasia; "season", has come to mean a seasonal reversal of winds, sea-to-land movement called onshore flow in the summer, land-to-sea movement called offshore flow in the winter
Polar Front (subpolar lows)
Final surface component of the general pattern of atmospheric circulation, a zone of low pressure at about 50-60 degrees latitude in both northern and Southern Hemispheres
Hugh pressured cells situated over both polar regions
Pressure Force Gradient
Higher pressure in one area than another, air will move fro, high pressure towards low pressure, "hill" and "valley"
A very large north south undulation of the upper air westerlies and jet stream
Common local wind system along tropical coastlines and to a lesser extent during summer in midlatitudes coastal areas; during he day , breeze flows sea to land
Subtropical Highs (STH)
each ocean basin has a large semipermanent high pressure cell centered about 30 degrees of latitude; permamnent feature is a subsidence temp inversion that covers wide areas in the subtropics, gigantic anticyclones develop from descending air of the Hadley cells
Lowest portion of troposphere, influence of wind direction
Reduces wind speed, greatest near earth's surface and diminishes upward
diverging from the equatorward sides of the subtropical highs is the major wind system of the tropics; cover most of earth b/w 25N latitude and 25S latitude; dominate more of the globe than any other wind system; most reliable of all winds, consistent in both speed and direction; "easterly" blow east to west, in Northern Hemisphere trade winds usually blow from northeast (northeast trades), Southern Hemisphere (southeast trades)
Cold, deep ocean water that rises to the surface where wind patterns deflect surface water away from the coast; especially common along the west coasts of continents in the subtropics and midlatitudes
Fourth component of the enteral atmospheric circulation is the great wind system of the midlatitudes; winds flow from west to east around the world I the latitudinal zone 30 degrees-60 degrees both north and south of the equator
horizontal wind movement; small scale vertical motions are updrafts and downdrafts, large scale vertical motions are ascents and subsidences
A group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity
In which direction do cyclones and anticyclones flow in the northern hemisphere?
What is wind? What factors determine how strongly the wind will blow?
refers only to horizontal wind movement; pressure gradient, if the gradient is steep air is swift, if the gradient is gentle air slow
Flowing air moving from higher pressure to lower pressure is following what?
The pressure gradient force
What's the difference between surface winds and Geostrophic winds? Which is Jet Stream?in terms of wind flow, where is friction the highest (near the surface or higher in the atmosphere)?
Geostrophic winds is the usual result of the balance of the Coriolis effect and the pressure gradient in the upper atmosphere wind blows parallel to isobars; surface winds are influenced by friction, wind takes intermediate course and crosses the isobars at angles between 0-90 degrees, friction reduces wind speed which in turn reduces the Coriolis effect deflection; Geostrophic winds;
Friction is highest near the surface
Zonal winds? And which direction do they flow in the northern hemisphere?
Along a latitude circle or in the west-east direction
Where are the thermal and dynamic highs located? Where are the thermal and dynamic lows located?
Very cool surface conditions, high pressure at the surface; strong descending air, high pressure at the surface
Very warm surface conditions, low pressure at the surface; strong rising air, low pressure at the surface
Do the major global wind and pressure systems stay in the same place all year or do they shift with the seasons?
Shift with the seasons
How far north can the ITCZ migrate in the summer?
As much as 25 degrees north of the equator in Juky
Trade winds? Where are they located?
Major easterly wind system of the tropics, issuing from the equatorward sides of the subtropical highs and diverging toward the west and toward the equator
Rossby waves? Describe relationship between zonal winds and Rossby waves.
A very large north south undulation of the upper air westerlies and jet stream
What does the word monsoon mean? General characteristics of monsoonal circulation? What seasons are wet/dry on monsoonal climates?
Meaning season in Arabic, mow ,dams seasonal reversal of winds; heavy summer rains from the moist maritime air of the onshore flow and dry winter season when continental air moving seaward dominates the circulation
Main factor in controlling the distribution of annual avg temp as a whole?
"Descending", wind that originates in cold upland areas and cascades toward lower elevations under the influence of gravity
Location of subtropical highs (STHs)? What is the relationship bw the STH and major deserts of the world? Why does this relationship exist?
Each ocean basin has a large semipermanent high pressure cell centered at about 30 degrees latitude;
Just west off the coasts of continents
Both are clear, warm, and calm, no clouds or rain,; warm subtropical sunshine
What is the relationship bw the STH and the westerly winds?
Source of the westerlies, the air that descends and diverges out of the subtropical highs is the source of the surface trade winds and westerlies
How are winds named?
From the direction they blow
What are El Niño and La Niña? What is the underlying cause of each?
La Niña waters off of South America become unusually cool, trade winds are stronger than usual, waters off Indonesia are unusually warm, the southwestern US is drier while Southeast Asia and northern Australia are wetter
Unclear cause, atmospheric pressure and wind patterns
When did wind farms start appearing? Are wind farms typical near the major population centers that need the energy generated by the wind farms?
No they are typically near places not densely populated and wind generated electricity must be sometimes transported over long distances to population centers via expensive transmission lines
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