Chapters 14 (section 1) and 15 (sections 1, 2, and 5)
Terms in this set (11)
Henry the Navigator
1. Portugal led the way in exploration under Prince Henry "The Navigator." Portuguese expeditions sailed eastward along the coast of Africa
2. Henry gathered cartographers (map makers), scientists, and other experts to redesign ships, trained sea captains, and prepared more accurate maps
3. He inspired explorers and sponsored voyages. Portugal hoped to Christianize the Africans and find an easier route to Asia, but Henry died in 1460, but Portuguese navigators continued his quest
Cartography and Astrolabe
1. Cartography is the making and studying of maps.
2. Cartographers redesigned ships, trained sea captains, and prepared more accurate maps. Astrolabe was an ancient device that was adapted for finding latitude and telling time.
3. As Europeans sought new routes to Asia, they benefited from this new technology
1. Rounded the tip of Africa
2. Despite the turbulent seas around it, the tip became known as the Cape of Good Hope
3. got its name because it opened the way for a sea route to Asia
Vasco de Gama
1. A Portuguese navigator who followed in Dias's footsteps by sailing around Africa and after 10 months reached India
2. He later helped Portugal build a vast trading network around the Indian Ocean
3. despite the long and hard journey home, the venture was highly profitable: had acquired a cargo of spices that he sold at an enormous profit and sought even greater profits-the Portuguese soon seized key ports around the Indian ocean, creating a vast trading empire and confirmed Portugal's status as a world power
1. in 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed westward across the Atlantic with three ships (Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria). Born in the Italian city of Genoa, he had persuaded Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to sponsor his journey.
2. He knew the world was round, but he underestimated its size and sailed for many weeks as a result. On October 12, he spotted land and explored the islands of the Caribbean, which he believed to be the West Indies. He called the people there "Indians" and returned to Spain a hero
3. he led three more voyages but he never realized he had not reached Asia. The lands Columbus had mistaken for the East Indies became known as the West Indie d
Line of Demarcation and Treaty of Tordesillas
1. In 1493, Ferdinand and Isabella appealed to the pope to support their claim to all land in what Europeans referred to as the "New World." Pope Alexander VI set a Line of Demarcation dividing all non-European land between Portugal and Spain
2. In the Treaty of Tordesillas, in 1494, Spain and Portugal agreed to the line set by the pope (line moved West a little bit). The line was very imprecise due to the lack of knowledge of the geography at the time. Other European nations were eager to defy what they saw as arrogance on the part of Portugal and Spain
3. As nations scrambled to create their own empires, and age of empire building began
1. In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan set out to find a passage to the East by sailing south and west
2. In 1521, after sailing around South America, and naming the Strait of Magellan, he and his crew crossed the South Sea and renamed it the Pacific Ocean. Magellan himself was killed in the Philippines
3. In 1522, one of his ships made it home to Spain, the first to circumnavigate the entire globe
1. Among the earliest conquistadors, he landed on the coast of Mexico in 1519 with 600 men, 16 horses, and a few cannon. he planned to conquer the Aztecs and headed inland to Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital.
2. he was helped by a young Indian woman named Malinche, called Dona Marina by spanish, who served as his translator and advisor. She knew both Mayan and Aztec languages and spanish. She also helped him form alliances with Native American groups who had been previously conquered by the Aztecs and hated Aztec rule
3. sent gifts by Aztec Emperor Moctezuma, who wasn't sure if Cortes was a god. Cortes and his Indian allies captured and demolished Tenochtitlan and Aztecs, aided by disease
1. He was inspired by Cortes to conquer the Inca empire in Peru
2. He began this quest in 1532, directly after an Inca civil war (same circumstances existed as Aztecs in Mexico). Pizarro and his men overran the Inca empire and conquered much of the rest of South America for Spain.
3. Like Cortes, Pizarro benefited from superior weapons and diseases that killed millions of natives. Pizarro was killed by a rival Spanish group, but his actions forever changed the continent
Aztecs, Incas, Mayas
1. Aztecs had structured society, made many advances in learning including astronomer, and mathematics. Like the Maya, the Aztecs developed a 365-day solar calendar. priests used herbs and other medicines to treat illnesses and heal wounds. Aztecs were frequently at war, conquered neighbors were forced to pay tribute. Neighboring tribes allied themselves with the spanish in 1500 to gain revenge on the Aztecs.
2. the Inca built the largest and most powerful Andean civilization. Incan capital was Cuzco, where all roads led to. The Inca had absolute power. The Inca rulers ran an efficient government and had no writing system. Inca unified their empire using language, religion, a system of roads and their army. Inca strictly regulated the lives of the millions of people who lived in the empire. The Inca were skilled in many fields. Religion and ritual were a part of Inca life, similar to the Aztecs.
1. When Columbus returned to Spain in March 1493, he brought with him plants and animals that he had found in the Americas. Later that year, Columbus returned to the Americas with some 1,200 settlers and a collection of European plants and animals.
2. Because this exchange began with Columbus, we call it the Columbian Exchange
3. In this way, Columbus began a vast global exchange (of goods,ideas, plants, animals,and diseases) that would profoundly affect the world.