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shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane or from volcanic activity


the subsurface area where motion of seismic waves is initiated


the area at the surface directly above focus


a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other


a fissure in the earth's crust (or in the surface of some other planet) through which molten lava and gases erupt


a bowl-shaped opening at the top of a volcano


a rock fragment launched by eruption

3 areas with Volcanic Activity

subduction zones, sea-floor spreading centers and continental rifting, hotspots.

5 types of Volcanic Landforms

cinder cone volcano, caldera/kettle, shield volcano, plateau basalts/flood basalts, composite/strata volcano

cinder cone volcano

cone shaped, cinder accumulate over time


an interior sunken portion of a shield or of a composite volcano crater

shield volcano

gradually sloped. large but not steep

plateau basalts/flood basalts

accumulation of horizontal flows formed when lava spreads out of elongated fissures. gentle eruptions

composite/strata volcano

sequence of extensive explosive eruptions


a slow-moving type of lava that hardens to form rough chunks


a hot, fast-moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, ropelike coils

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